ICB Financial Accounting Programme Learning Outcomes

ICB Outcomes for the following Programmes:

 

ICB Bookkeeping to Trial Balance

 

An introduction to business, bookkeeping and accounting

 

  • Discuss the history and origin of accounting and the double entry system;
  • identify the users and uses of financial information;
  • critically evaluate the various forms of business ownership (sole traders, partnerships, companies and close corporations);
  • describe the developments which have taken place in the field of accounting, making specific reference to internal vs. external reporting;
  • illustrate the bookkeeping and accounting cycle graphically;
  • outline the types of transactions that can take place in a business;
  • define common accounting terms including source document, journal, bank reconciliation, general ledger, trial balance, income statement and balance sheet;
  • analyse transactions under the accounting equation;
  • define assets, non-current assets and current assets;
  • define liabilities, non-current liabilities and current liabilities;
  • explain the business entity rule, and analyse transactions under the accounting equation taking this principle into account;
  • explain what is meant by a ‘proprietary account’ and distinguish between capital and drawings accounts;
  • define profit, income, expenses and cost of sales; and
  • explain and apply the rules of double entry (including cross references).

 

Value Added Tax and source documents

 

  • Explain what Value Added Tax (VAT) is;
  • illustrate how the VAT system works in terms of input VAT and output VAT;
  • identify the different  VAT  supply  categories  (including  standard  rated,  zero-rated  and exempt supplies, as well as non-allowable items);
  • compare the  payments  vs.  the  invoice  bases  according  to  which  vendors  may  be registered for VAT;
  • explain what a valid tax invoice looks like;
  • differentiate between the various source documents used by businesses to record various transactions;
  • perform basic VAT calculations (VAT exclusive and VAT inclusive amounts as well as mark-ups and gross margins); and
  • complete a VAT201 form accurately and correctly.

 

Recording cash transactions

 

  • Explain the difference between the cash flow and the profit of a business;
  • identify the different subsidiary journals and the transactions unique to each of these journals;
  • define cash transactions;

 

  • explain the purpose of every column in each of the three cash journals;
  • record cash transactions in the cashbook receipts;
  • record cash transactions in the cashbook payments;
  • record cash transactions in the petty cash journal;
  • account for VAT in the journals by recording a variety of different cash transactions that involve standard rated, zero-rated, exempt and non-allowable items;
  • post the cash journals to the general ledger and balance the general ledger accounts; and
  • index the general ledger accounts with their respective balances in a trial balance;

 

Recording credit and sundry transactions

 

  • Explain why  offering  credit  can  benefit  a  business,  while  also  focusing  on  the  risks associated with offering credit to customers;
  • define credit transactions;
  • record credit purchases in the creditors journal from original credit invoices;
  • record original credit notes in the creditors allowances journal;
  • record credit sales in the debtors journal from duplicate credit invoices;
  • record duplicate credit notes in the debtors allowances journal;
  • record sundry transactions in the general journal;
  • complete a comprehensive exercise in which all subsidiary journals are combined;
  • account for VAT in the journals by recording a variety of different transactions that involve standard rated, zero-rated, exempt and non-allowable items;
  • post a completed set of subsidiary journals to the general ledger;
  • balance the ledger accounts and draft a trial balance.

 

Inventory systems

 

  • Explain why some businesses choose not to use a perpetual inventory system, but a periodic system instead;
  • calculate cost of sales using a periodic inventory system;
  • demonstrate the  working  of  the  purchases  and  purchases  returns  accounts  under  a periodic inventory system;
  • demonstrate the working of the carriage on purchases and similar accounts that affect the calculation of cost of sales under a periodic inventory system;
  • analyse inventory-related  transactions  under  the  accounting  equation  when  using  a periodic inventory system;
  • record inventory-related transactions in the subsidiary journals when using a periodic inventory system; and
  • explain which one of the two inventory systems is most desirable for a business to make use of.

 

Individual accounts for debtors and creditors, and supplier and general ledger reconciliations

 

  • Explain why it is important to have separate debtors’ accounts in a separate ledger;
  • illustrate the structure of individual accounts in the debtors ledger;
  • explain why it is important to have separate creditors’ accounts in a separate ledger;
  • illustrate the structure of individual accounts in the creditors ledger;
  • explain the control account system;

 

  • demonstrate how the debtors list is reconciled with the debtors control account in the general ledger;
  • demonstrate how the creditors list is reconciled with the creditors control account in the general ledger;
  • demonstrate how errors and omissions in the books of the business are corrected by means of corrective entries in the general journal and/or creditor’s individual account;
  • demonstrate how errors on the statement received from the creditor are outlined on the creditors reconciliation statement (remittance advice); and
  • prepare a General ledger reconciliation statement.

The bank reconciliation process

 

  • Discuss the daily banking process of a business;
  • understand the information included in a bank statement;
  • outline the steps in the bank reconciliation procedure;
  • compare the credits on the bank statement with the bank column in the cashbook receipts to identify any differences which need to be updated in the cashbook;
  • compare the debits on the bank statement with the bank column in the cashbook payments to identify any differences which need to be updated in the cashbook;
  • total the cashbook receipts and cashbook payments, and post to the bank account in the general ledger;
  • transcribe the closing bank statement balance onto the bank reconciliation statement;
  • clear any remaining amounts from the previous month’s reconciliation statement and carry forward any unresolved amounts to the current month’s reconciliation statement;
  • enter un-reconciled cashbook amounts in the bank reconciliation statement;
  • interpret and investigate any outstanding items on the current month’s bank reconciliation statement; and
  • identify the alternative steps which may be followed when conducting a bank reconciliation.

 

Drafting financial statements

 

  • apply lateral thinking with respect to double entries, journals, ledgers and the trial balance;
  • interpret the balances/totals on a trial balance from a business perspective;
  • demonstrate how to prepare the final accounts in the books of account at year-end;
  • explain the difference between financial performance and financial position;
  • prepare a simple income statement; and
  • prepare a simple balance sheet.

 

 

ICB Payroll and Monthly SARS Returns

 

Basic bookkeeping and VAT

  • Differentiate between the various source documents used by businesses to record various transactions;
  • identify the different subsidiary journals and the transactions unique to each of these journals;
  • identify the accounts used in the general ledger;

 

  • understand the accounting equation;
  • define assets, non-current assets and current assets;
  • define liabilities, non-current liabilities and current liabilities;
  • define owner’s equity and differentiate between drawings and capital;
  • define income and expenses;
  • explain the rules of double entry;
  • explain the purpose of a trial balance;
  • distinguish between the monthly and yearly financial cycle of a business;
  • revise the recording of transactions in the subsidiary ledgers;
  • explain what Value Added Tax (VAT) is and illustrate how the VAT system works in terms of input VAT and output VAT;
  • identify the different  VAT  supply  categories  (including  standard  rated,  zero-rated  and exempt supplies, as well as non-allowable items);
  • calculate VAT amounts as well as VAT inclusive and VAT exclusive amounts for various transactions;
  • explain the information that has to be included on an invoice and debit and credit notes for VAT purposes;
  • compare the  payments  vs.  the  invoice  bases  according  to  which  vendors  may  be registered for VAT;
  • outline the different categories according to which VAT vendors can be classified;
  • explain when VAT payments are due and the penalties and interest that will be charged on late payments;
  • distinguish between VAT avoidance and VAT evasion; and
  • complete VAT returns accurately and completely.

 

Plan, organise, implement, monitor and work within the payroll environment

 

  • Identify the role and typical duties of a payroll administrator;
  • distinguish between a payroll and a payroll form;
  • outline a typical payroll cycle;
  •   discuss the important issues a payroll administrator needs to deal with, including training and resource allocation, change management, statutory requirements and organisational procedures, prevention of payroll fraud, evaluation and review of payroll staff, reporting of deviations and implementing corrective action;
  • describe how a payroll administrator should go about developing procedures to meet specified needs (i.e. developing it in conjunction with users and agreeing the costs and benefits with decision-makers); and
  • explain how a payroll administrator could ensure that procedures are implemented.

 

Record and validate input variations on employee records

 

  • Discuss why it is important for a payroll administrator to verify employees’ contracts;
  • outline the elements to be included in a contract of employment;
  • explain the importance of capturing employee information correctly on the payroll system;
  • recognise what a compensation package comprise of and distinguish between the different types of remuneration;
  • explain the importance of employee induction and the role the payroll administrator plays in this process;

 

  • describe how payroll is affected by the movement of employees and the processes that should be followed by the payroll administrator when new  employees  are  appointed, existing employees are promoted or transferred or when the services of an employee are terminated;
  • exhibit an understanding of the importance of payroll administrators implementing instructions from external agencies quickly and correctly;
  • understand that the payroll administrator has to evaluate and record variation to payroll records in order to ensure that all data is accurate and reasonable, and that no unauthorised changes were made to payroll records.

Basic conditions of employment

 

  • Outline and explain the main stipulations of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act No. 11 of 2002 (as amended);
  • calculate and explain normal time and overtime as well as the opportunity cost of each;
  • explain the various types of leave that an employee is entitled to during the course of his or her employment;
  • outline the implications of leave payments and leave encashment to the individual, the employer, and the society as a whole; and
  • record and validate employee records.

 

Statutory registrations

 

  • Explain and complete the statutory registration forms for a new business;
  • explain the purpose, working and logistical arrangements with respect to Skills Develop- ment Levies (SDL), Unemployment Insurance Fund (UIF) and Pay-As-You-Earn (PAYE);
  • explain  the   purpose,   working   and   logistical   arrangements   with   respect   to   the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act; and
  • demonstrate the claiming procedures for benefits from each of the designated statutory funds.

 

Complete PAYE documents

 

  • Calculate gross earnings for an employee, including allowances as well as company car and medical aid fringe benefits;
  • calculate ‘remuneration’ and ‘balance of remuneration’ as defined by SARS;
  • calculate ‘PAYE remuneration’, ‘SDL remuneration’ and ‘UIF remuneration’ as defined by SARS; and
  • complete a monthly EMP201 return reflecting the correct calculation and payment of PAYE, SDL and UIF to SARS.

 

Accounting for payroll

 

  • Calculate wages from either time records or a productivity scheme;
  • make and record the correct deductions;
  • record all payroll components in the appropriate wages or salaries register; and
  • post the wages and salaries registers as well as the cashbook payments to the general ledger to affect the double entries for payroll.

 

 

Computerised payroll

 

  • Install and register Pastel Payroll;
  • navigate through the different menu options;
  • create a new company selecting the correct pay frequencies;
  • setup the company parameters;
  • edit and create transaction codes;
  • edit profiles for different pay frequencies;
  • create employee master files and link them to the relevant profile;
  • bring in year to date totals on employees previously calculated on a manual system;
  • set up the default (permanent) tab of employees pay slips;
  • edit employees’ periodic payslips according to information supplied for the pay period;
  • process a payroll run for both weekly and monthly salaries;
  • create a backup of the company data;
  • run payroll and statutory reports; and
  • process a pay period update moving the payroll form one pay period into the next.

 

Monthly SARS returns and eFiling

 

  • Submit an EMP201 on eFiling; and
  • submit a VAT201 form on eFiling.

 

Ethics and the registered Tax Practitioner

 

  • Contrast morals and ethics;
  • explain and describe a code of conduct;
  • identify and explain the principles of a code of conduct;
  • adhere to a code of conduct;
  • identify and understand the ethical issues in an organisation;
  • explain the basic principles of internal control;
  • identify the need for Tax Practitioners in South Africa;
  • explain when a person should register with SARS as a Tax Practitioner;
  • explain the procedures to be followed for registration as a Tax Practitioner;
  • explain the reasons for regulation of the tax profession; and
  • list the  benefits  for  professional  membership  of  the  South  African  Institute  of  Tax Professionals (SAIT).

 

ICB Computerised Bookkeeping

 

Office Computing

 

Introduction to computing

 

  • Discuss the history of computers briefly;
  • learn what a PC is and how it basically works;
  • identify the main components of PC hardware;
  • understand why upgrading a PC is important;
  • identify various PC software applications;

 

  • differentiate between hardware and software;
  • understand the interaction between hardware and software using the IPOS cycle;
  • understand what networks are used for;
  • identify the basic components of networks; and
  • explain the advantages and disadvantages of using computers.

 

The Windows Operating System

 

  • Understand where the Windows concept comes from;
  • learn how to use basic tools in Windows;
  • learn how to log on to your PC;
  • identify the desktop and the taskbar;
  • identify objects in Windows;
  • use the recycle bin;
  • identify tooltips;
  • identify common Window components;
  • learn how to control multiple opened Windows;
  • learn how to start a programme;
  • use the help, support and search tools;
  • learn how to adjust PC hardware and PC software properties;
  • learn how to change basic mouse properties;
  • view the display properties;
  • understand user accounts;
  • add and remove programmes;
  • learn what drivers are;
  • use Windows Explorer to browse and create folders;
  • open and navigate through the Windows Explorer structure;
  • learn how to work with files and folders in Windows Explorer;
  • create and save a document in Windows; and
  • know how to launch a programme.

 

Working with Internet and Email

 

  • Learn what e-mail is;
  • distinguish between the Internet, e-mail and network e-mail;
  • identify the various Outlook components;
  • compose messages in Outlook;
  • learn how to format messages;
  • learn how to open a message;
  • learn how to add an attachment to an e-mail;
  • understand why and how to create e-mail folders;
  • learn how to move messages to a folder;
  • understand how contacts work in Outlook;
  • learn how to add and delete contacts in the address book;
  • use the help function in Outlook;
  • work with electronic calendars;
  • schedule appointments and meetings in an electronic diary;
  • create and manage contacts in an electronic diary;

 

  • understand Internet basics;
  • distinguish between the intranet and the extranet;
  • understand what viruses are;
  • identify a web browser;
  • understand what a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is;
  • identify the Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 Interface;
  • use web-based tools;
  • download programs and files from the web;
  • understand the workings of a search engine; and
  • search the web and get usable information.

 

Working with Microsoft Word 2010

 

  • Work effectively and efficiently on MS Word.

Working with Microsoft Excel 2010

 

  • Work with an Excel workbook;
  • create and save a workbook;
  • open and view a workbook;
  • navigate within a worksheet;
  • format and edit an existing worksheet;
  • print preview and print data; and
  • work and understand the tools within the following tabs:
  • Home tab
  • Insert tab
  • Page Layout tab
  • Formulas tab
  • Data tab
  • Review tab
  • View tab
  • Add-Ins tab

 

Working with Microsoft PowerPoint 2010

 

  • Work with PowerPoint slides;
  • create and save a presentation;
  • open and view a presentation;
  • navigate within a presentation;
  • format and edit an existing presentation;
  • print preview and print slides; and
  • work and understand the tools within the following tabs:
  • Home tab
  • Insert tab
  • Design tab
  • Transition Tab
  • Animation tab
  • Slide Show tab

 

  • Review tab
  • View tab

 

Pastel Accounting

 

Installation and registration of Pastel Partner V14

 

  • Explain what the minimum hardware requirements are for installing Pastel Partner V14 on your computer;
  • choose the correct regional and date settings;
  • install a printer driver;
  • install Pastel Partner V14;
  • register Pastel Partner V14 as an educational version; and
  • navigate in Pastel Partner V14.

 

Pastel language and navigation

 

  • Relate standard bookkeeping terminology to the terminology used in Pastel Partner V14; and
  • learn how to navigate in Pastel using the different navigational options in Pastel.

 

Creating and setting up a company in Pastel Partner V14

 

  • Create a new company in Pastel Partner V14; and
  • set up the company according to the company’s requirements.

Create and maintain general ledger accounts

 

  • Understand the difference between a main and a sub general ledger account;
  • create new general ledger main accounts;
  • create new general ledger sub-accounts; and
  • complete the inventory  setup  by  creating  inventory  groups  and  linking  the  groups  to general ledger accounts.

 

Create and maintain supplier accounts

 

  • Create and maintain supplier categories;
  • create and maintain supplier accounts; and
  • view and print supplier master listings.

 

Create and maintain customer accounts

 

  • Create and maintain customer categories;
  • create sales analyses codes;
  • create and maintain customer accounts; and
  • view and print customer master listings.

 

Create and maintain inventory items

 

 

  • Create inventory categories; and
  • create inventory items.

 

Take on balances and journals

 

  • Process and understand general journal processing using Pastel Partner V14;
  • take on balances in the middle of a financial year;
  • make a system backup;
  • update batches processed;
  • print a trial  balance,  customer  and  supplier age analysis,  bank  reconciliation  and  an inventory valuation report; and
  • restore a system backup.

 

Supplier processing

 

  • Create a purchase order and link it to a supplier invoice;
  • update supplier batches;
  • create a purchase journal for non-inventory items;
  • link a return and debit note to a supplier invoice; and
  • compare the manual bookkeeping cycle with that of the computerised bookkeeping cycle.

 

Customer processing

 

  • Process a customer’s quotation;
  • link a quotation to a customer sales order;
  • process a customer’s sales order;
  • link a sales order to a customer invoice;
  • create a cash customer account; and
  • process a customer’s credit note and link it to the relevant customer’s tax invoice.

 

Cash book, petty cash and journal processing

 

  • Process a cash book and reconcile the cash book with the bank statement i.e. bank reconciliation;
  • transfer funds between bank accounts;
  • process a petty cash book;
  • process general journals with VAT implications;
  • process customer journals and interest on overdue accounts;
  • process supplier journals;
  • process inventory journals with VAT implications;
  • compare manual to computerised ledgers; and
  • compare the manual to the computerised trial balance.

 

Month-end procedures

 

  • Ensure that  all  necessary  month-end  procedures  have  been  completed  for  Letsema Furnishers.

 

 

Year-end procedures

 

  • Successfully complete a year-end procedure in Pastel Partner V14.

ICB Business Literacy

 

The key principles of effective business communication

 

  • List reasons why effective communication is important in the workplace;
  • explain the communication process;
  • identify your audience in this process;
  • distinguish between different communication situations/categories;
  • recognise the importance of adapting your communication style to different communication situations;
  • distinguish between formal and informal communication;
  • differentiate between  and  recognise  verbal  and  non-verbal  communication  in  the workplace;
  • identify explicit and implicit messages in verbal and non-verbal communication;
  • understand the importance of listening to achieve effective communication; and
  • list the barriers to effective communication and explain how they can be overcome.

 

Spoken communication

 

  • Give a definition of oral/spoken communication;
  • understand the importance of the voice and language in spoken communication;
  • apply techniques to improve your voice and articulation;
  • understand the importance of planning and preparation for spoken communication situ- ations;
  • distinguish between direct and indirect spoken communication;
  • list and explain the different types of spoken communication;
  • communicate using these different types of spoken communication;
  • recognise the importance of choosing the appropriate form of spoken communication for your audience;
  • recognise formal and informal spoken communication;
  • identify explicit and implicit messages in spoken communication;
  • recognise and respond to assertive use of spoken communication; and
  • analyse your own responses to spoken communication.

 

Written communication

 

  • List reasons why effective written communication in English is important in the workplace;
  • give a definition of written communication;
  • recognise the link between writing and reading;
  • understand the importance of words and grammar in written communication;
  • use simple, concise and correct English to express yourself in writing in the workplace;
  • get your audience’s attention using effective headings, layout and graphic material;
  • extract key information from written texts and summarise it;
  • understand the importance of checking and editing written information;

 

  • differentiate between fact and opinion;
  • recognise persuasive writing and be able to respond to it;
  • list and explain the different types of written communication;
  • use these different types of written communication;
  • choose the appropriate type of written communication for your audience/reader; and
  • analyse your own response to written communication.

 

Work readiness

 

  • Recognise the skills needed to prepare for the workplace;
  • understand the role of the individual in a business organisation;
  • plan and organise yourself for improved personal effectiveness;
  • maintain files and records;
  • manage your time effectively;
  • recognise the importance of establishing and maintaining working relationships;
  • describe the characteristics of an effective team;
  • define group dynamics and the phases of team task completion;
  • appreciate the value of teamwork;
  • recognise conflict and understand how it impacts on a team;
  • manage conflict in a team situation;
  • differentiate between morals, ethics and values;
  • explain and describe a code of conduct;
  • understand the need for organisational codes;
  • describe the concept of professional conduct;
  • relate professionalism to personal, team and organisational behaviour;
  • link characteristics like honesty, confidentiality, accountability and service excellence to professionalism;
  • discuss the role of ethics and professionalism in the accountancy field;
  • list examples of unprofessional and unethical conduct; and
  • suggest ways of dealing with unethical practices.

Working with numbers: an introduction

 

  • Explain the Hindu-Arabic number system as used in the Western world;
  • represent integers on a number line;
  • perform calculations with integers using four basic operations;
  • find missing figures for a given problem;
  • perform calculations with negative numbers;
  • perform complex calculations using the order of operations convention;
  • calculate averages;
  • do calculations involving powers and roots;
  • explain how the binary number system works;
  • convert a base-10 (decimal) integer to its binary equivalent; and
  • convert a base-2 (binary) integer to its decimal equivalent.

 

Working with fractions and decimal numbers

 

  • Explain what a fraction is;

 

  • define proper and improper fractions;
  • explain what a mixed fraction is;
  • perform calculations with fractions using the four basic operations;
  • explain what a decimal is;
  • define and work with non-terminating, terminating and recurring decimals;
  • convert decimals to fractions;
  • perform calculations with decimals using four basic operations;
  • work with numbers in different ways to express size and magnitude;
  • use scientific notation for small and large numbers;
  • correctly relate prefixes magnitude in measurement to the decimal system;
  • correctly apply conversions between related units in different measuring systems; and
  • demonstrate the effect of error on calculations.

 

Percentages, ratios, proportions and equations

 

  • Explain what a percentage is;
  • convert a decimal or a fraction into a percentage;
  • convert a percentage into a decimal or a fraction;
  • calculate a number as a percentage of another number;
  • apply a percentage to a number;
  • measure percentage change;
  • explain what a ratio is;
  • calculate and simplify ratios;
  • explain the relationship between a ratio and a fraction;
  • share amounts or values in accordance with a predetermined ratio;
  • solve problems where numbers are in proportion to one another;
  • determine the missing figure in equivalent ratios;
  • explain what an equation is;
  • solve equations;
  • explain what a formula is;
  • change the subject of a formula; and
  • solve problems using formulas.

 

Using interest rates in business

 

  • Explain the difference between simple interest and compound interest;
  • calculate simple interest;
  • use the simple interest formula to determine the principal, rate and time;
  • calculate compound interest;
  • explain what present value and future value mean; and
  • perform present value and future value calculations.

 

Measure, analyse and communicate workplace data

 

  • Define the concept of space;
  • explain how physical quantities or spaces are measured;
  • discuss the intricacies of angles and triangles;

 

  • explain and apply the Pythagorean Theory to solve problems in the workplace as well as in everyday life; and
  • use shapes to communicate workplace data.

 

 

Business communication – Putting it all together

 

  • Gain improved perspective on the importance of communication in the workplace;
  • understand how the theory learned in Modules 1 – 4 relates to ‘real life’ work situations;
  • gain insight into interpreting a variety of texts; and
  • form a better understanding of the communication process as a whole.

 

Business numeracy – Putting it all together

 

  • Gain improved perspective on the importance of numeric proficiency in the workplace;
  • understand how the theory learned in Learning Modules 5 – 9 relates to ‘real life’ work situations; and
  • gain insight into interpreting a variety of mathematical problems.

 

ICB Financial Statements

 

Recording business financial transactions

 

  • define assets, non-current assets and current assets;
  • define liabilities, non-current liabilities and current liabilities;
  • explain what is meant by a ‘proprietary account’;
  • define income and expenses;
  • explain and apply the rules of double entry;
  • process receipts and payments;
  • enter records in an analysed cash book for both cash and bank entries;
  • check invoices received against orders;
  • record debtors and creditors;
  • prepare a bank reconciliation statement;
  • draw up and interpret a trial balance;
  • record and interpret financial transactions with reference to the monthly bookkeeping function.

 

Depreciable assets

 

  • Explain the purpose of depreciation;
  • calculate depreciation on non-current assets using the straight-line method;
  • calculate depreciation on non-current assets using the diminishing balance method;
  • record adjustments and closing transfers pertaining to depreciation in the general journal;
  • explain how the accumulated depreciation account works;
  • complete and interpret an asset register;
  • maintain records relating to capital acquisition and disposal; and
  • disclose property, plant and equipment in the financial statements at year-end.

 

 

 

Finalisation and interpretation of accounts

 

  • Demonstrate how a ‘year-end’ procedure is run in the books of a business;
  • explain the purpose and working of a trading account;
  • explain the purpose and working of a profit and loss account;
  • demonstrate how various year-end adjustments are used to make financial statements more realistic;
  • prepare the final accounts for a small business;
  • prepare the income statement for a small business;
  • prepare the statement of financial position for a small business;
  • apply profitability and liquidity ratios to a set of financial statements and appraise the efficiency and profitability of a small business using these tools;
  • explain the difference between gross profit, net profit and cash on hand; and
  • discuss the limitations of ratio analyses.

 

Financial statements of the sole proprietorship

 

  • Explain and demonstrate the accounting concepts of prudence, accrual and matching;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the business and accounting environment;
  • identify financial statement information for a sole trader; and
  • draft the year-end financial statements of a sole trader after passing the required year-end adjustments.

 

Partnerships

 

  • Explain and  demonstrate  the  basic  differences  between  a  sole  proprietorship  and  a partnership;
  • define and explain accounting concepts and procedures for a partnership;
  • prepare and interpret the final accounts and financial statements of a partnership; and
  • analyse the peculiar transactions of a partnership under the accounting equation.

 

Internal reporting for corporate entities

 

For close corporations:

  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of trading as a CC;
  • explain the difference between members’ interest and members’ net investment;
  • illustrate the effect of changes in membership on members’ funds and members’ interest percentages; and
  • prepare the final accounts and financial statements for a CC (with notes where applicable).

 

For companies:

  • Define a company and explain its legal status;
  • explain the advantages of trading as a company;
  • explain the difference between a public and a private company;
  • explain what is meant by shares and shareholders, stated capital and market value, as well as authorised and issued share capital;

 

  • discuss how shares are issued, and how the amounts are recorded;
  • prepare a statement of changes in equity for a limited company;
  • prepare the financial statements of a company, as well as appropriate notes to such statements;
  • discuss the general principles of consolidation; and
  • discuss the  impact  of  the  International  Financial  Reporting  Standards  (IFRS)  on  the accounting profession.

 

An Introduction to IFRS for SMMEs

 

  • Understand the  key  concepts  and  pervasive  principles  underlying  the  preparation  of financial statements using IFRS for SMEs;
  • understand the basic aspects of financial statement presentation using IFRS for SMEs; and
  • apply the recognition and measurement principles of key financial statement elements covered by IFRS for SMEs.

 

Statement of cash flows

 

  • Perform a series of asset disposal procedures in order to obtain key figures needed for the preparation of a statement of cash flows and the notes thereto;
  • calculate the amount representing cash receipts from customers during a financial year;
  • calculate the amount representing cash paid to suppliers and employees during a financial year;
  • calculate the cash outlays incurred with respect to SARS and shareholders’ dividends;
  • reconcile net profit before tax with cash generated from operations; and
  • prepare a statement of cash flows, sectored into cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities.

 

ICB Cost and Management Accounting

 

An introduction to managerial accounting

  • Calculate the total production, administration, selling and distribution costs of a product;
  • distinguish between fixed, semi-fixed, semi- variable and variable costs;
  • carry out a simple break-even analysis;
  • calculate a selling price by using the mark-up or the margin; and
  • apply the concepts of chargeable hours and total hours worked.

 

Controlling inventory and overhead costs

 

  • Identify appropriate cost centres and elements of costs;
  • explain how inventory costs can be controlled in the most efficient way;
  • demonstrate how inventory can be valued according to the FIFO or weighted average method of valuation;
  • illustrate how  the  most  economical  ordering  quantity  for  items  of  inventory  can  be ascertained;

 

  • record and analyse information with respect to allocation, apportionment and absorption of overhead costs; and
  • establish overhead costs in accordance with the organisation’s procedures.

Accounting for a manufacturing enterprise

 

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the business and accounting environment;
  • identify and describe accounting methods in line with organisational requirements and GAAP/GRAP;
  • make the necessary double entries in the general ledger of a manufacturing concern;
  • prepare a production cost statement for a manufacturing concern;
  • prepare a trading statement for a manufacturing concern; and
  • set up  the  notes  to  the  production  cost  and  trading  statements  for  a  manufacturing concern.

Job costing

 

  • Identify the differences between job costing and process costing;
  • explain the steps involved in job costing;
  • identify overhead application rates;
  • calculate the cost of a job;
  • calculate the profit or loss of a job;
  • identify and calculate over- or under-absorbed overheads;
  • calculate the cost of a job taking into account work-in-process and finished goods;
  • identify and complete a job order cost sheet;
  • account for normal and abnormal wastage;
  • prepare relevant ledger accounts for a job costing system;
  • prepare manufacturing accounts; and
  • distinguish between work-in-progress and finished goods.

 

Budgeting and standard costing

 

  • Describe the benefits of budgeting;
  • outline the budgeting process;
  • prepare selected components of a master budget from information provided;
  • develop and monitor an office supply budget;
  • implement a plan to control the distribution of office supplies;
  • implement control measures with individuals;
  • explain what standard costing is;
  • correctly code, analyse and correct data;
  • state the advantages of using a standard costing system;
  • define a variance;
  • calculate different variances and determine whether they are favourable or unfavourable; and
  • discuss the reasons why variances occur.

Contract accounting

 

  • Explain what contract accounting/costing is;
  • understand the terminology used in contract accounting;
  • know how to record transactions relevant to a contract;
  • understand and apply the different methods of recognising revenue and profits accruing to a contract as a contract progresses in completion;
  • record all relevant transactions, ascertain profits and complete a contract work in process account;
  • post debits and credits for all categories of financial transactions;
  • understand an income statement and balance sheet;
  • explain the basics of cost and management accounting and process journal entries relevant to these transactions;
  • understand the basics of job costing; and
  • understand the role of work in progress in marshalling transactions relevant to production in cost and management accounting.

Process costing

  • Explain what process costing is;
  • explain the main components of process costing being:
  • transferring costs from one process to another;
  • accounting for wastages;
  • accounting for abnormal gains and losses in wastage;
  • accounting for scrap;
  • valuation of transfers from one process to the next;
  • account for process costing in the general ledger

 

Financial management

 

  • Explain why the time value of money is such a crucial element to consider when making financial decisions for an organisation;
  • calculate the future value of a present consideration;
  • calculate the present value of a future consideration;
  • apply various capital budgeting techniques to judge the viability of a capital investment;
  • understand the importance of financial reporting;
  • define capital and explain the various components thereof;
  • define cost of capital;
  • determine the cost of capital components;
  • explain the capital structure;
  • calculate the weighted average cost of capital;
  • explain complexities in the determination of cost of capital;
  • explain the issues in financing decisions.

 

ICB Income Tax Returns

 

Introduction to income tax

 

  • Identify the different types and categories of taxes;

 

  • differentiate the factors in deemed South African source;
  • understand the process of the Income Tax Act;
  • identify the different tax years of assessment;
  • compute the basic taxable income of an individual and a business;
  • calculate a tax liability as per the sliding scale tax table;
  • calculate marginal and effective tax rates;
  • calculate tax thresholds from the sliding scale tax table and given tax rebates;
  • understand the pre-paid taxes system;
  • demonstrate the tax process; and
  • understand the scope and aim of the Tax Administration Act.

 

Gross income

 

  • Identify amounts that would be included in the general definition of gross income; and
  • identify amounts that are specifically included in gross income.

 

Exempt income

 

  • Identify exempt income;
  • calculate the exempt portion of gross income where the exemption is partial; and
  • calculate income for tax purposes.

 

Allowable deductions

 

  • Identify expenses which are deductible in terms of the general deduction formula;
  • identify expenses which are deductible in terms of special deductions;
  • calculate limited deductions in terms of S11;
  • calculate capital allowances;
  • calculate building allowances;
  • calculate deductions in respect of trading stock in terms of S22;
  • calculate allowable medical expenses in terms of S18 and allowable medical scheme tax credits in terms of S6A;
  • calculate allowable donations in terms of S18A;
  • identify prohibited deductions; and
  • calculate taxable income (excluding capital gains).

 

Fringe benefits and allowances

 

  • Calculate the taxable portion of a travel allowance;
  • calculate the taxable portion of a subsistence allowance;
  • determine the taxation of other allowances and identify deductions which may be claimed;
  • identify fringe benefits; and
  • determine the cash equivalent of fringe benefits for taxation purposes.

 

Employees’ tax and provisional tax

 

  • Calculate gross earnings for an employee, including allowances as well as company car and medical aid fringe benefits;

 

  • calculate ‘remuneration’ and ‘balance of remuneration’ as defined by SARS;
  • calculate ‘PAYE remuneration’, ‘SDL remuneration’ and ‘UIF remuneration’ as defined by SARS;
  • complete a monthly EMP201 return reflecting the correct calculation of PAYE, SDL and UIF due to SARS;
  • complete an annual IRP5 certificate or an IT3(a) certificate for each employee;
  • complete the annual EMP501 reconciliation for SARS;
  • explain the reasoning behind the provisional tax system;
  • demonstrate the calculations pertaining to the first provisional payment;
  • demonstrate the calculations pertaining to the second provisional payment; and
  • demonstrate the calculations pertaining to the third provisional (top up) payment.

 

Taxation of non-residents

 

  • Determine whether or not a person is a resident of South Africa for tax purposes;
  • interpret legislation relating to non-residents;
  • calculate withholding tax on specific income paid to non-residents in terms of S35, S35A and S47; and
  • determine the tax liability of a non-resident.

 

Taxation of business entities

 

  • Determine the taxable income of a sole proprietor;
  • determine the taxable income of a partner in a partnership;
  • interpret legislation related to companies, close corporations and trusts;
  • apply the laws and procedures relating to these entities;
  • classify a company as either private or public;
  • identify a group of companies;
  • determine the tax liability of a small business corporation;
  • identify dividends and deemed dividends;
  • establish the dividend cycle;
  • calculate the effective rate of tax of a company;
  • calculate dividends tax to be withheld;
  • calculate the STC credit carried forward;
  • identify the different types of trusts;
  • identify who will be liable for the tax on a trust’s income in terms of S25 and S7; and
  • determine the tax liability of a trust.

 

Turnover tax

 

  • Identify which businesses will qualify as micro businesses;
  • determine taxable turnover;
  • calculate interim tax payments;
  • calculate turnover tax payable; and
  • determine output VAT payable on de-registration as a VAT vendor due to registration as a micro business.

 

Completing tax returns

 

  • Complete ITR12 and IT14 tax returns.

Capital gains tax

 

  • Interpret legislation related to capital gains;
  • apply the laws and procedures relating to capital gains;
  • identify disposals and deemed disposals;
  • establish the time of disposal;
  • calculate the proceeds and base cost of an asset disposed of;
  • identify disallowed capital losses;
  • identify deferred capital gains;
  • identify exclusions; and
  • calculate the taxable capital gain.

Donations tax

 

  • Define donations tax;
  • identify who is liable for donations tax;
  • identify donations which are exempt from donations tax;
  • identify deemed donations;
  • understand limited interests in property;
  • value property and limited interests in property for donations tax purposes; and
  • calculate donations tax.

 

Estate duty

 

  • Interpret legislation related to estate duty;
  • apply the laws and procedures relating to estate duty;
  • identify property and deemed property to be included in the gross estate;
  • identify the deductions allowable from the gross estate;
  • calculate the dutiable estate by deducting the S4A abatement;
  • calculate estate duty payable;
  • identify rebates allowable in terms of Schedule 1 and S16; and
  • apportion estate duty liability.

 

SARS and the Tax Practitioner

 

  • Identify the need for Tax Practitioners in South Africa;
  • explain when a person should register with SARS as a Tax Practitioner;
  • explain the procedures to be followed for registration as a Tax Practitioner;
  • explain the reasons for regulation of the tax profession; and
  • list the  benefits  for  professional  membership  of  the  South  African  Institute  of  Tax Professionals (SAIT).

 

 

ICB Business Law and Accounting Control

 

The unspoken laws of business

 

  • Explain what is meant by an ‘unspoken law’;
  • define economics;
  • distinguish between microeconomics and macroeconomics;
  • explain how  major  economic  events  such  as  a  hike  in  interest  rates,  inflation  and unemployment affects the ‘man on the street’;
  • explain the role of households, businesses, government, the foreign sector and financial institutions in the economy;
  • demonstrate the intricacies of demand and supply;
  • illustrate and explain the laws of demand and supply as well as resultant equilibrium;
  • explain how the theory of demand and supply can be used to determine what price to charge for a product;
  • explain the determinants of demand and supply, and demonstrate how such determinants can affect the equilibrium point;
  • explain what is meant by inflation, what causes inflation and what can be done to control it; and
  • explain why inflation is a problem.

 

The written laws of business

 

  • Discuss the sources of South African law;
  • differentiate between public and private law;
  • discuss the stare decisis rule and the jurisdictions of the various courts of law;
  • differentiate between civil action and civil application proceedings;
  • distinguish between appeal and review proceedings;
  • define a contract;
  • define the term ‘obligation’;
  • discuss the essentials for a valid contract;
  • differentiate between the concepts of a valid, void and voidable contract with reference to practical examples;
  • define the terms ‘unjust enrichment’ and ‘delict’;
  • discuss the elements to be proven for delictual liability to occur;
  • differentiate between the contractual capacity of minors under the age of seven years, those over the age of seven years but under the age of 18 years and finally those over the age of 18 years;
  • differentiate between a contract that is void ab initio and supervening impossibility;
  • discuss which  contracts  have  formalities  which  must  be  adhered  to  before  they  are considered valid;
  • identify the five forms of breach of contract;
  • discuss and identify prevention of performance as a form of breach and the requirements that must be met to prove that such breach has occurred;
  • list and explain the remedies available to an innocent party to a contract when breach has occurred; and
  • differentiate between the term ‘breach’ and ‘termination’ of contracts;

 

Managing your personal finances

 

  • Prepare a personal/household budget;
  • explain the factors that have a bearing on one’s investment decisions;
  • explain the difference between ‘saving’ and ‘investing’;
  • outline the various asset classes in an investment portfolio;
  • demonstrate how switches between asset classes at strategic intervals can enhance the value of an investment portfolio;
  • outline and discuss the investment vehicles suitable for retirement planning;
  • explain the working, construction and use of unit trusts and endowment policies in an investor’s investment portfolio;
  • explain why risk cover is an essential component of every prudent investor’s investment portfolio;
  • briefly discuss the need and working of short-term insurance products; and
  • explain why  efficient  debt  management  is  so  important,  and  how  it  can  be  applied effectively.

 

Accounting systems – Internal control concepts

 

  • Outline, demonstrate and discuss the basic premises of internal control.

 

Managing accounting systems

 

  • Outline, demonstrate and discuss the management of accounting systems, with specific reference to the various revenue and expenditure cycles.

 

Accounting systems – Stock control

 

  • Explain how stock control can be applied and controlled most effectively in an organisation.

Accounting systems – Analytical review

 

  • Demonstrate how analytical reviews are conducted to ascertain the validity and integrity of internal control and internal audit.

 

Liquidation and executors’ accounts

 

  • Explain what is meant by ‘estate planning’;
  • explain the consequences of dying intestate;
  • demonstrate the various permutations of intestate succession;
  • outline the basic legislation relating to estate planning;
  • calculate estate duty payable on the estate of a deceased;
  • explain the basis premises of donations tax and how this tax has a bearing on estate planning;
  • outline the main function of the Master with respect to deceased and insolvent estates;
  • explain the roles of dependents, minors, tutors, trustees and curators with respect to deceased estates;
  • discuss the appointment procedures of tutors and curators;

 

  • outline ways by which estate duty can be reduced;
  • demonstrate the working of executors’, tutors’ and curators’ accounts;
  • administer insolvent  estates,  with  particular  reference  to  liquidation  and  distribution accounts;
  • explain the difference between voluntary surrender and compulsory sequestration;
  • outline the various acts of insolvency;
  • explain the role of the trustee and the effect of sequestration on the insolvent’s property; and
  • prepare the accounts used to administer the insolvent estate.

 

ICB Corporate Strategy

 

Introduction to strategic management

  • Define strategic management;
  • outline the strategic management process;
  • name the people involved in the strategic management process;
  • identify the building blocks of strategic management;
  • describe the various levels of strategic management;
  • discuss other aspects that will impact on strategy formulation; and
  • explain the advantages of strategic management.

Formulating a strategic direction

 

  • Discuss the importance of strategic direction;
  • formulate a strategic vision;
  • formulate a strategic mission;
  • explain the interrelationship between a vision and a mission;
  • discuss the core values that support a vision and mission; and
  • understand that strategic positioning happens in a competitive environment.

The context of strategic selection

 

  • Analyse the external or macro environment in which a business operates;
  • analyse the industry environment in which a business operates;
  • conduct internal environmental analysis; and
  • discuss the objective of internal and external scanning.

The formulation of corporate goals and objectives

  • Understand the process of formulating long-term goals and objectives for a business;
  • identify the focus areas of long-term goals;
  • outline the cascading process of goals and objectives;
  • describe the qualities of long-term objectives;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the criteria used when formulating long-term goals;
  • explain the link between goals/objectives and key performance areas; and
  • identify strategies that will advance goals and objectives.

 

 

Strategy identification and formulation

 

  • Distinguish between the five generic competitive strategies;
  • discuss more focused corporate strategies;
  • illustrate an understanding of external and internal growth strategies;
  • outline the different decline strategies a business can make use of;
  • examine corporate combination strategies; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of strategy analysis and evaluation.

Strategy evaluation and selection

 

  • Discuss the importance of strategy evaluation;
  • identify the criteria for effective strategies;
  • understand the decision-making process;
  • distinguish between  the  different  models  that  can  be  used  to  evaluate  and  analyse strategies; and
  • plan for change in an organisation.

Strategy implementation

 

  • Identify the barriers to the successful implementation of a strategy;
  • outline the drivers and instruments that facilitate strategy implementation; and
  • translate long-term strategic objectives into short-term strategies.

 

Continuous improvement through strategic control and evaluation

  • Discuss strategic control as an element of the strategic management process;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the balanced scorecard;
  • identify the relationship between strategic control and corporate governance; and
  • outline the approaches which can be used to build competitive advantage.

Strategic management and non-profit organisations

 

  • Discuss the  benefits  for  non-profit  organisations  of  making  use  of  the  strategic management process;
  • identify the sources of income for non-profit organisations;
  • demonstrate an understanding of strategic planning for non-profit organisations;
  • identify useful strategies which can be implemented by non-profit organisations; and
  • explain the purpose of strategic alliances.

ICB Management Accounting Control Systems

 

Activity-based costing

 

  • Distinguish between traditional costing systems and ABC;

 

  • calculate product overhead costs using ABC;
  • make use of unit-based drivers to assign overheads; and
  • discuss the advantages and limitations of ABC.

Cost classification, estimation and behaviour

 

  • Differentiate between fixed, variable and mixed costs;
  • estimate the fixed and variable elements of a mixed cost making use of the high-low method;
  • apply the least squares regression method to study trends in financial data; and
  • demonstrate how the learning curve theory can be used to calculate the amount of time necessary to complete a task.

Cost-volume-profit analysis

 

  • List the underlying assumptions of CVP analysis;
  • discuss the difference between the economist’s view and the accountant’s view of the CVP graph;
  • demonstrate how mathematics can be used in CVP analysis;
  • demonstrate how break-even analysis should be applied in an environment characterised by multiple products; and
  • illustrate how a change in inputs in the CVP equation will give rise to a change in profits and break-even points.

Linear programming

 

  • Define and list the underlying assumptions of linear programming;
  • formulate a linear programming equation;
  • demonstrate the effects of shadow pricing; and
  • outline the limitations of linear programming.

Standard costing

 

  • Discuss the need for making use of standard costing;
  • differentiate between the different types of standards used in standard costing;
  • conduct variance calculations;
  • reconcile budgeted to actual profit; and
  • conduct variance calculations using the additional variances included under a standard absorption costing system.

Relevant costs

 

  • Explain the significance of relevant costs to the decision-making process;
  • explain the importance of qualitative factors in financial decision-making processes; and
  • apply relevant costing in financial decision-making.

Expected value theory and decision trees

 

  • Define the nature and use of expected value theory;
  • describe the advantages and limitations of expected value theory;
  • demonstrate how decision trees are used as a decision-making tool; and
  • describe the advantages and limitations of decision trees.

Pricing policy and transfer pricing

 

  • Discuss the role and purpose of a pricing policy;
  • explain what is meant by an optimum price and output level;
  • explain the purpose of a market penetration pricing strategy;
  • outline the steps to be followed during target costing;
  • outline the advantages and disadvantages of target costing; and
  • explain and apply transfer pricing.

Budgeting

 

  • Explain the definition of a budget and the budgeting process;
  • distinguish between fixed and flexible budgets;
  • draft the different components of a master budget; and
  • outline the advantages and disadvantages of zero-based budgeting.

Divisional performance evaluation

 

  • Explain what is meant by responsibility accounting;
  • outline potential problems that may arise with inter-divisional performance measurement;
  • describe the significance of organisational structures in managerial decision-making; and
  • demonstrate how key performance measurement indicators for divisions are applied in a corporate environment.

 

ICB Financial Reporting and Regulatory Frameworks

 

Introduction  to  International  Financial  Reporting  Standards  (IFRS)  and  the   Conceptual Framework

 

  • Discuss the need for a regulatory framework in accounting;
  • discuss the process of harmonisation of accounting standards;
  • demonstrate an  understanding  of  the  process  followed  when  international  accounting standards are set or amended; and
  • outline the  basic  premises  of  the  International  Accounting  Standards  Board  (IASB) Framework.

 

IAS 1 – Presentation of financial statements

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the requirements for the preparation of financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards;
  • prepare a set of financial statements which is compliant with International Financial Reporting Standards;

 

  • explain the general considerations that need to be adhered to when preparing a set of financial statements for a company.

 

 

IAS 16 – Property, plant and equipment

 

  • Explain how property, plant and equipment (and its different components) must be recognised in financial statements;
  • explain how land and buildings is recognised in financial statements;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how property, plant and equipment is measured at recognition;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how property, plant and equipment is measured after recognition;
  • discuss when property, plant and equipment should be derecognised; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to property, plant and equipment.

 

IAS 40 – Investment property

 

  • Explain how investment property is recognised in financial statements;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how investment property is measured at recognition;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how investment property is measured after recognition;
  • explain when transfers to/from investment property may be made;
  • discuss when investment property should be derecognised; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to investment property.

 

IAS 36 – Impairment of assets

 

  • Explain how to identify an impaired asset;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to measure the recoverable amount;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to recognise an impairment loss;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to reverse an impairment loss; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to the impairment of assets.

 

IAS 38 – Intangible assets

 

  • Explain how to identify an intangible asset;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to measure intangible assets at recognition:
  • explain when internally generated intangible assets should be recognised;
  • explain the expenditure on intangible assets that should be expensed when incurred;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to measure intangible assets after recognition;
  • discuss the useful life of an intangible asset;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to amortise intangible assets with finite useful lives;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to amortise intangible assets with indefinite useful lives;
  • discuss when intangible property should be retired/disposed of and derecognised; and

 

  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to intangible assets.

 

 

IAS 2 – Inventories

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how to measure inventories;
  • discuss the recognition of expenses when inventories are sold; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to inventory.

 

IAS 37 – Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

 

  • Discuss when provisions are recognised;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to measure provisions;
  • discuss how reimbursements on provisions should be recognised;
  • discuss when changes in provisions should be made;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to apply the recognition and measurement rules; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to provisions.

 

IAS 17 – Leases

 

  • Discuss the classification of leases;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how leases are recognised in the financial statements of lessees; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of how leases are recognised in the financial statements of lessors.

 

Financial instruments

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how financial instruments are presented in financial statements (IAS32);
  • demonstrate an understanding of how financial instruments are measured and recognised (IAS39); and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to financial instruments (IFRS7).

 

IAS10 – Events after the reporting period

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how events that happen after the reporting period are recognised and measured in the financial statements;
  • explain the concept of a going concern; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regard to events that happened after the reporting period.

 

IAS18 – Revenue

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how revenue is measured;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how revenue from the sale of goods is recognised;

 

  • demonstrate an understanding of how revenue from the rendering of services is recognise;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how revenue from interest, royalties and dividends is recognised; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to revenue.

 

IAS19 – Employee benefits

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how short-term employee benefits are recognised, measured and disclosed;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how termination benefits are recognised, measured and disclosed; and
  • distinguish between defined contribution plans and defined benefit plans.

 

IAS21 – The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates

 

  • Explain the difference between monetary and non-monetary items;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the reporting of foreign currency transactions in the functional currency; and
  •  outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to foreign exchange transactions.

 

IAS33 – Earnings per share

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how basic earnings per share is measured;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how diluted earnings per share is measured; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to earnings per share.

 

IAS12 – Income taxes

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how to recognise, measure and present current tax;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to recognise, measure and present deferred tax; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to recognise, measure and present deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets.

 

IAS8 – Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the criteria used to select and change accounting policies;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the accounting treatment and disclosure of changes in accounting estimates; and
  • demonstrate and understanding of the accounting treatment and disclosure of the correction of errors.

 

IAS7 – Statement of cash flows

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the statement of cash flows is presented;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how cash flow from interest and dividends received and paid must be disclosed;
  • explain how cash flows from taxes on income must be disclosed;

 

  • discuss how cash and cash equivalents must be disclosed; and
  • identify other disclosures that must be made in the statement of cash flows.

 

Consolidated financial statements

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of consolidation procedures;
  • discuss different group accounts and group structures;
  • explain when a parent company’s consolidated financial statements should be presented;
  • explain the disclosures required in consolidated financial statements;
  • explain how to identify a business combination;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to apply the acquisition method;
  • demonstrate an understanding of consolidation after acquisition; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of consolidated statements of cash flows.

 

Financial reporting requirements of the Companies Act 2008

 

  • Explain when the financial year end of a company may change;
  • discuss the requirements for the completion and storing of accounting records;
  • explain the criteria that the financial statements of a company must meet; and
  • explain the regulatory requirements that the annual financial statements of a company must meet.