ICB Financial Accounting Programme

Expected Outcomes

 

Bookkeeping to Trial Balance

 

An introduction to business, bookkeeping and accounting

 

  • Discuss the history and origin of accounting and the double entry system;
  • identify the users and uses of financial information;
  • critically evaluate the various forms of business ownership (sole traders, partnerships, companies and close corporations);
  • describe the developments which have taken place in the field of accounting, making specific reference to internal vs. external reporting;
  • illustrate the bookkeeping and accounting cycle graphically;
  • outline the types of transactions that can take place in a business;
  • define common accounting terms including source document, journal, bank reconciliation, general ledger, trial balance, income statement and balance sheet;
  • analyse transactions under the accounting equation;
  • define assets, non-current assets and current assets;
  • define liabilities, non-current liabilities and current liabilities;
  • explain the business entity rule, and analyse transactions under the accounting equation taking this principle into account;
  • explain what is meant by a ‘proprietary account’ and distinguish between capital and drawings accounts;
  • define profit, income, expenses and cost of sales; and
  • explain and apply the rules of double entry (including cross references).

 

Value Added Tax and source documents

 

  • Explain what Value Added Tax (VAT) is;
  • illustrate how the VAT system works in terms of input VAT and output VAT;
  • identify the different  VAT  supply  categories  (including  standard  rated,  zero-rated  and exempt supplies, as well as non-allowable items);
  • compare the  payments  vs.  the  invoice  bases  according  to  which  vendors  may  be registered for VAT;
  • explain what a valid tax invoice looks like;
  • differentiate between the various source documents used by businesses to record various transactions;
  • perform basic VAT calculations (VAT exclusive and VAT inclusive amounts as well as mark-ups and gross margins); and
  • complete a VAT201 form accurately and correctly.

 

Recording cash transactions

 

  • Explain the difference between the cash flow and the profit of a business;
  • identify the different subsidiary journals and the transactions unique to each of these journals;
  • define cash transactions;

 

  • explain the purpose of every column in each of the three cash journals;
  • record cash transactions in the cashbook receipts;
  • record cash transactions in the cashbook payments;
  • record cash transactions in the petty cash journal;
  • account for VAT in the journals by recording a variety of different cash transactions that involve standard rated, zero-rated, exempt and non-allowable items;
  • post the cash journals to the general ledger and balance the general ledger accounts; and
  • index the general ledger accounts with their respective balances in a trial balance;

 

Recording credit and sundry transactions

 

  • Explain why  offering  credit  can  benefit  a  business,  while  also  focusing  on  the  risks associated with offering credit to customers;
  • define credit transactions;
  • record credit purchases in the creditors journal from original credit invoices;
  • record original credit notes in the creditors allowances journal;
  • record credit sales in the debtors journal from duplicate credit invoices;
  • record duplicate credit notes in the debtors allowances journal;
  • record sundry transactions in the general journal;
  • complete a comprehensive exercise in which all subsidiary journals are combined;
  • account for VAT in the journals by recording a variety of different transactions that involve standard rated, zero-rated, exempt and non-allowable items;
  • post a completed set of subsidiary journals to the general ledger;
  • balance the ledger accounts and draft a trial balance.

 

Inventory systems

 

  • Explain why some businesses choose not to use a perpetual inventory system, but a periodic system instead;
  • calculate cost of sales using a periodic inventory system;
  • demonstrate the  working  of  the  purchases  and  purchases  returns  accounts  under  a periodic inventory system;
  • demonstrate the working of the carriage on purchases and similar accounts that affect the calculation of cost of sales under a periodic inventory system;
  • analyse inventory-related  transactions  under  the  accounting  equation  when  using  a periodic inventory system;
  • record inventory-related transactions in the subsidiary journals when using a periodic inventory system; and
  • explain which one of the two inventory systems is most desirable for a business to make use of.

 

Individual accounts for debtors and creditors, and supplier and general ledger reconciliations

 

  • Explain why it is important to have separate debtors’ accounts in a separate ledger;
  • illustrate the structure of individual accounts in the debtors ledger;
  • explain why it is important to have separate creditors’ accounts in a separate ledger;
  • illustrate the structure of individual accounts in the creditors ledger;
  • explain the control account system;

 

  • demonstrate how the debtors list is reconciled with the debtors control account in the general ledger;
  • demonstrate how the creditors list is reconciled with the creditors control account in the general ledger;
  • demonstrate how errors and omissions in the books of the business are corrected by means of corrective entries in the general journal and/or creditor’s individual account;
  • demonstrate how errors on the statement received from the creditor are outlined on the creditors reconciliation statement (remittance advice); and
  • prepare a General ledger reconciliation statement.

The bank reconciliation process

 

  • Discuss the daily banking process of a business;
  • understand the information included in a bank statement;
  • outline the steps in the bank reconciliation procedure;
  • compare the credits on the bank statement with the bank column in the cashbook receipts to identify any differences which need to be updated in the cashbook;
  • compare the debits on the bank statement with the bank column in the cashbook payments to identify any differences which need to be updated in the cashbook;
  • total the cashbook receipts and cashbook payments, and post to the bank account in the general ledger;
  • transcribe the closing bank statement balance onto the bank reconciliation statement;
  • clear any remaining amounts from the previous month’s reconciliation statement and carry forward any unresolved amounts to the current month’s reconciliation statement;
  • enter un-reconciled cashbook amounts in the bank reconciliation statement;
  • interpret and investigate any outstanding items on the current month’s bank reconciliation statement; and
  • identify the alternative steps which may be followed when conducting a bank reconciliation.

 

Drafting financial statements

 

  • apply lateral thinking with respect to double entries, journals, ledgers and the trial balance;
  • interpret the balances/totals on a trial balance from a business perspective;
  • demonstrate how to prepare the final accounts in the books of account at year-end;
  • explain the difference between financial performance and financial position;
  • prepare a simple income statement; and
  • prepare a simple balance sheet.

 

 

Payroll and Monthly SARS Returns

 

Basic bookkeeping and VAT

  • Differentiate between the various source documents used by businesses to record various transactions;
  • identify the different subsidiary journals and the transactions unique to each of these journals;
  • identify the accounts used in the general ledger;

 

  • understand the accounting equation;
  • define assets, non-current assets and current assets;
  • define liabilities, non-current liabilities and current liabilities;
  • define owner’s equity and differentiate between drawings and capital;
  • define income and expenses;
  • explain the rules of double entry;
  • explain the purpose of a trial balance;
  • distinguish between the monthly and yearly financial cycle of a business;
  • revise the recording of transactions in the subsidiary ledgers;
  • explain what Value Added Tax (VAT) is and illustrate how the VAT system works in terms of input VAT and output VAT;
  • identify the different  VAT  supply  categories  (including  standard  rated,  zero-rated  and exempt supplies, as well as non-allowable items);
  • calculate VAT amounts as well as VAT inclusive and VAT exclusive amounts for various transactions;
  • explain the information that has to be included on an invoice and debit and credit notes for VAT purposes;
  • compare the  payments  vs.  the  invoice  bases  according  to  which  vendors  may  be registered for VAT;
  • outline the different categories according to which VAT vendors can be classified;
  • explain when VAT payments are due and the penalties and interest that will be charged on late payments;
  • distinguish between VAT avoidance and VAT evasion; and
  • complete VAT returns accurately and completely.

 

Plan, organise, implement, monitor and work within the payroll environment

 

  • Identify the role and typical duties of a payroll administrator;
  • distinguish between a payroll and a payroll form;
  • outline a typical payroll cycle;
  •   discuss the important issues a payroll administrator needs to deal with, including training and resource allocation, change management, statutory requirements and organisational procedures, prevention of payroll fraud, evaluation and review of payroll staff, reporting of deviations and implementing corrective action;
  • describe how a payroll administrator should go about developing procedures to meet specified needs (i.e. developing it in conjunction with users and agreeing the costs and benefits with decision-makers); and
  • explain how a payroll administrator could ensure that procedures are implemented.

 

Record and validate input variations on employee records

 

  • Discuss why it is important for a payroll administrator to verify employees’ contracts;
  • outline the elements to be included in a contract of employment;
  • explain the importance of capturing employee information correctly on the payroll system;
  • recognise what a compensation package comprise of and distinguish between the different types of remuneration;
  • explain the importance of employee induction and the role the payroll administrator plays in this process;

 

  • describe how payroll is affected by the movement of employees and the processes that should be followed by the payroll administrator when new  employees  are  appointed, existing employees are promoted or transferred or when the services of an employee are terminated;
  • exhibit an understanding of the importance of payroll administrators implementing instructions from external agencies quickly and correctly;
  • understand that the payroll administrator has to evaluate and record variation to payroll records in order to ensure that all data is accurate and reasonable, and that no unauthorised changes were made to payroll records.

Basic conditions of employment

 

  • Outline and explain the main stipulations of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act No. 11 of 2002 (as amended);
  • calculate and explain normal time and overtime as well as the opportunity cost of each;
  • explain the various types of leave that an employee is entitled to during the course of his or her employment;
  • outline the implications of leave payments and leave encashment to the individual, the employer, and the society as a whole; and
  • record and validate employee records.

 

Statutory registrations

 

  • Explain and complete the statutory registration forms for a new business;
  • explain the purpose, working and logistical arrangements with respect to Skills Develop- ment Levies (SDL), Unemployment Insurance Fund (UIF) and Pay-As-You-Earn (PAYE);
  • explain  the   purpose,   working   and   logistical   arrangements   with   respect   to   the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act; and
  • demonstrate the claiming procedures for benefits from each of the designated statutory funds.

 

Complete PAYE documents

 

  • Calculate gross earnings for an employee, including allowances as well as company car and medical aid fringe benefits;
  • calculate ‘remuneration’ and ‘balance of remuneration’ as defined by SARS;
  • calculate ‘PAYE remuneration’, ‘SDL remuneration’ and ‘UIF remuneration’ as defined by SARS; and
  • complete a monthly EMP201 return reflecting the correct calculation and payment of PAYE, SDL and UIF to SARS.

 

Accounting for payroll

 

  • Calculate wages from either time records or a productivity scheme;
  • make and record the correct deductions;
  • record all payroll components in the appropriate wages or salaries register; and
  • post the wages and salaries registers as well as the cashbook payments to the general ledger to affect the double entries for payroll.

 

 

Computerised payroll

 

  • Install and register Pastel Payroll;
  • navigate through the different menu options;
  • create a new company selecting the correct pay frequencies;
  • setup the company parameters;
  • edit and create transaction codes;
  • edit profiles for different pay frequencies;
  • create employee master files and link them to the relevant profile;
  • bring in year to date totals on employees previously calculated on a manual system;
  • set up the default (permanent) tab of employees pay slips;
  • edit employees’ periodic payslips according to information supplied for the pay period;
  • process a payroll run for both weekly and monthly salaries;
  • create a backup of the company data;
  • run payroll and statutory reports; and
  • process a pay period update moving the payroll form one pay period into the next.

 

Monthly SARS returns and eFiling

 

  • Submit an EMP201 on eFiling; and
  • submit a VAT201 form on eFiling.

 

Ethics and the registered Tax Practitioner

 

  • Contrast morals and ethics;
  • explain and describe a code of conduct;
  • identify and explain the principles of a code of conduct;
  • adhere to a code of conduct;
  • identify and understand the ethical issues in an organisation;
  • explain the basic principles of internal control;
  • identify the need for Tax Practitioners in South Africa;
  • explain when a person should register with SARS as a Tax Practitioner;
  • explain the procedures to be followed for registration as a Tax Practitioner;
  • explain the reasons for regulation of the tax profession; and
  • list the  benefits  for  professional  membership  of  the  South  African  Institute  of  Tax Professionals (SAIT).

 

Computerised Bookkeeping

 

Office Computing

 

Introduction to computing

 

  • Discuss the history of computers briefly;
  • learn what a PC is and how it basically works;
  • identify the main components of PC hardware;
  • understand why upgrading a PC is important;
  • identify various PC software applications;

 

  • differentiate between hardware and software;
  • understand the interaction between hardware and software using the IPOS cycle;
  • understand what networks are used for;
  • identify the basic components of networks; and
  • explain the advantages and disadvantages of using computers.

 

The Windows Operating System

 

  • Understand where the Windows concept comes from;
  • learn how to use basic tools in Windows;
  • learn how to log on to your PC;
  • identify the desktop and the taskbar;
  • identify objects in Windows;
  • use the recycle bin;
  • identify tooltips;
  • identify common Window components;
  • learn how to control multiple opened Windows;
  • learn how to start a programme;
  • use the help, support and search tools;
  • learn how to adjust PC hardware and PC software properties;
  • learn how to change basic mouse properties;
  • view the display properties;
  • understand user accounts;
  • add and remove programmes;
  • learn what drivers are;
  • use Windows Explorer to browse and create folders;
  • open and navigate through the Windows Explorer structure;
  • learn how to work with files and folders in Windows Explorer;
  • create and save a document in Windows; and
  • know how to launch a programme.

 

Working with Internet and Email

 

  • Learn what e-mail is;
  • distinguish between the Internet, e-mail and network e-mail;
  • identify the various Outlook components;
  • compose messages in Outlook;
  • learn how to format messages;
  • learn how to open a message;
  • learn how to add an attachment to an e-mail;
  • understand why and how to create e-mail folders;
  • learn how to move messages to a folder;
  • understand how contacts work in Outlook;
  • learn how to add and delete contacts in the address book;
  • use the help function in Outlook;
  • work with electronic calendars;
  • schedule appointments and meetings in an electronic diary;
  • create and manage contacts in an electronic diary;

 

  • understand Internet basics;
  • distinguish between the intranet and the extranet;
  • understand what viruses are;
  • identify a web browser;
  • understand what a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is;
  • identify the Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 Interface;
  • use web-based tools;
  • download programs and files from the web;
  • understand the workings of a search engine; and
  • search the web and get usable information.

 

Working with Microsoft Word 2010

 

  • Work effectively and efficiently on MS Word.

Working with Microsoft Excel 2010

 

  • Work with an Excel workbook;
  • create and save a workbook;
  • open and view a workbook;
  • navigate within a worksheet;
  • format and edit an existing worksheet;
  • print preview and print data; and
  • work and understand the tools within the following tabs:
  • Home tab
  • Insert tab
  • Page Layout tab
  • Formulas tab
  • Data tab
  • Review tab
  • View tab
  • Add-Ins tab

 

Working with Microsoft PowerPoint 2010

 

  • Work with PowerPoint slides;
  • create and save a presentation;
  • open and view a presentation;
  • navigate within a presentation;
  • format and edit an existing presentation;
  • print preview and print slides; and
  • work and understand the tools within the following tabs:
  • Home tab
  • Insert tab
  • Design tab
  • Transition Tab
  • Animation tab
  • Slide Show tab

 

  • Review tab
  • View tab

 

Pastel Accounting

 

Installation and registration of Pastel Partner V14

 

  • Explain what the minimum hardware requirements are for installing Pastel Partner V14 on your computer;
  • choose the correct regional and date settings;
  • install a printer driver;
  • install Pastel Partner V14;
  • register Pastel Partner V14 as an educational version; and
  • navigate in Pastel Partner V14.

 

Pastel language and navigation

 

  • Relate standard bookkeeping terminology to the terminology used in Pastel Partner V14; and
  • learn how to navigate in Pastel using the different navigational options in Pastel.

 

Creating and setting up a company in Pastel Partner V14

 

  • Create a new company in Pastel Partner V14; and
  • set up the company according to the company’s requirements.

Create and maintain general ledger accounts

 

  • Understand the difference between a main and a sub general ledger account;
  • create new general ledger main accounts;
  • create new general ledger sub-accounts; and
  • complete the inventory  setup  by  creating  inventory  groups  and  linking  the  groups  to general ledger accounts.

 

Create and maintain supplier accounts

 

  • Create and maintain supplier categories;
  • create and maintain supplier accounts; and
  • view and print supplier master listings.

 

Create and maintain customer accounts

 

  • Create and maintain customer categories;
  • create sales analyses codes;
  • create and maintain customer accounts; and
  • view and print customer master listings.

 

Create and maintain inventory items

 

 

  • Create inventory categories; and
  • create inventory items.

 

Take on balances and journals

 

  • Process and understand general journal processing using Pastel Partner V14;
  • take on balances in the middle of a financial year;
  • make a system backup;
  • update batches processed;
  • print a trial  balance,  customer  and  supplier age analysis,  bank  reconciliation  and  an inventory valuation report; and
  • restore a system backup.

 

Supplier processing

 

  • Create a purchase order and link it to a supplier invoice;
  • update supplier batches;
  • create a purchase journal for non-inventory items;
  • link a return and debit note to a supplier invoice; and
  • compare the manual bookkeeping cycle with that of the computerised bookkeeping cycle.

 

Customer processing

 

  • Process a customer’s quotation;
  • link a quotation to a customer sales order;
  • process a customer’s sales order;
  • link a sales order to a customer invoice;
  • create a cash customer account; and
  • process a customer’s credit note and link it to the relevant customer’s tax invoice.

 

Cash book, petty cash and journal processing

 

  • Process a cash book and reconcile the cash book with the bank statement i.e. bank reconciliation;
  • transfer funds between bank accounts;
  • process a petty cash book;
  • process general journals with VAT implications;
  • process customer journals and interest on overdue accounts;
  • process supplier journals;
  • process inventory journals with VAT implications;
  • compare manual to computerised ledgers; and
  • compare the manual to the computerised trial balance.

 

Month-end procedures

 

  • Ensure that  all  necessary  month-end  procedures  have  been  completed  for  Letsema Furnishers.

 

 

Year-end procedures

 

  • Successfully complete a year-end procedure in Pastel Partner V14.

Business Literacy

 

The key principles of effective business communication

 

  • List reasons why effective communication is important in the workplace;
  • explain the communication process;
  • identify your audience in this process;
  • distinguish between different communication situations/categories;
  • recognise the importance of adapting your communication style to different communication situations;
  • distinguish between formal and informal communication;
  • differentiate between  and  recognise  verbal  and  non-verbal  communication  in  the workplace;
  • identify explicit and implicit messages in verbal and non-verbal communication;
  • understand the importance of listening to achieve effective communication; and
  • list the barriers to effective communication and explain how they can be overcome.

 

Spoken communication

 

  • Give a definition of oral/spoken communication;
  • understand the importance of the voice and language in spoken communication;
  • apply techniques to improve your voice and articulation;
  • understand the importance of planning and preparation for spoken communication situ- ations;
  • distinguish between direct and indirect spoken communication;
  • list and explain the different types of spoken communication;
  • communicate using these different types of spoken communication;
  • recognise the importance of choosing the appropriate form of spoken communication for your audience;
  • recognise formal and informal spoken communication;
  • identify explicit and implicit messages in spoken communication;
  • recognise and respond to assertive use of spoken communication; and
  • analyse your own responses to spoken communication.

 

Written communication

 

  • List reasons why effective written communication in English is important in the workplace;
  • give a definition of written communication;
  • recognise the link between writing and reading;
  • understand the importance of words and grammar in written communication;
  • use simple, concise and correct English to express yourself in writing in the workplace;
  • get your audience’s attention using effective headings, layout and graphic material;
  • extract key information from written texts and summarise it;
  • understand the importance of checking and editing written information;

 

  • differentiate between fact and opinion;
  • recognise persuasive writing and be able to respond to it;
  • list and explain the different types of written communication;
  • use these different types of written communication;
  • choose the appropriate type of written communication for your audience/reader; and
  • analyse your own response to written communication.

 

Work readiness

 

  • Recognise the skills needed to prepare for the workplace;
  • understand the role of the individual in a business organisation;
  • plan and organise yourself for improved personal effectiveness;
  • maintain files and records;
  • manage your time effectively;
  • recognise the importance of establishing and maintaining working relationships;
  • describe the characteristics of an effective team;
  • define group dynamics and the phases of team task completion;
  • appreciate the value of teamwork;
  • recognise conflict and understand how it impacts on a team;
  • manage conflict in a team situation;
  • differentiate between morals, ethics and values;
  • explain and describe a code of conduct;
  • understand the need for organisational codes;
  • describe the concept of professional conduct;
  • relate professionalism to personal, team and organisational behaviour;
  • link characteristics like honesty, confidentiality, accountability and service excellence to professionalism;
  • discuss the role of ethics and professionalism in the accountancy field;
  • list examples of unprofessional and unethical conduct; and
  • suggest ways of dealing with unethical practices.

Working with numbers: an introduction

 

  • Explain the Hindu-Arabic number system as used in the Western world;
  • represent integers on a number line;
  • perform calculations with integers using four basic operations;
  • find missing figures for a given problem;
  • perform calculations with negative numbers;
  • perform complex calculations using the order of operations convention;
  • calculate averages;
  • do calculations involving powers and roots;
  • explain how the binary number system works;
  • convert a base-10 (decimal) integer to its binary equivalent; and
  • convert a base-2 (binary) integer to its decimal equivalent.

 

Working with fractions and decimal numbers

 

  • Explain what a fraction is;

 

  • define proper and improper fractions;
  • explain what a mixed fraction is;
  • perform calculations with fractions using the four basic operations;
  • explain what a decimal is;
  • define and work with non-terminating, terminating and recurring decimals;
  • convert decimals to fractions;
  • perform calculations with decimals using four basic operations;
  • work with numbers in different ways to express size and magnitude;
  • use scientific notation for small and large numbers;
  • correctly relate prefixes magnitude in measurement to the decimal system;
  • correctly apply conversions between related units in different measuring systems; and
  • demonstrate the effect of error on calculations.

 

Percentages, ratios, proportions and equations

 

  • Explain what a percentage is;
  • convert a decimal or a fraction into a percentage;
  • convert a percentage into a decimal or a fraction;
  • calculate a number as a percentage of another number;
  • apply a percentage to a number;
  • measure percentage change;
  • explain what a ratio is;
  • calculate and simplify ratios;
  • explain the relationship between a ratio and a fraction;
  • share amounts or values in accordance with a predetermined ratio;
  • solve problems where numbers are in proportion to one another;
  • determine the missing figure in equivalent ratios;
  • explain what an equation is;
  • solve equations;
  • explain what a formula is;
  • change the subject of a formula; and
  • solve problems using formulas.

 

Using interest rates in business

 

  • Explain the difference between simple interest and compound interest;
  • calculate simple interest;
  • use the simple interest formula to determine the principal, rate and time;
  • calculate compound interest;
  • explain what present value and future value mean; and
  • perform present value and future value calculations.

 

Measure, analyse and communicate workplace data

 

  • Define the concept of space;
  • explain how physical quantities or spaces are measured;
  • discuss the intricacies of angles and triangles;

 

  • explain and apply the Pythagorean Theory to solve problems in the workplace as well as in everyday life; and
  • use shapes to communicate workplace data.

 

 

Business communication – Putting it all together

 

  • Gain improved perspective on the importance of communication in the workplace;
  • understand how the theory learned in Modules 1 – 4 relates to ‘real life’ work situations;
  • gain insight into interpreting a variety of texts; and
  • form a better understanding of the communication process as a whole.

 

Business numeracy – Putting it all together

 

  • Gain improved perspective on the importance of numeric proficiency in the workplace;
  • understand how the theory learned in Learning Modules 5 – 9 relates to ‘real life’ work situations; and
  • gain insight into interpreting a variety of mathematical problems.

 

Financial Statements

 

Recording business financial transactions

 

  • define assets, non-current assets and current assets;
  • define liabilities, non-current liabilities and current liabilities;
  • explain what is meant by a ‘proprietary account’;
  • define income and expenses;
  • explain and apply the rules of double entry;
  • process receipts and payments;
  • enter records in an analysed cash book for both cash and bank entries;
  • check invoices received against orders;
  • record debtors and creditors;
  • prepare a bank reconciliation statement;
  • draw up and interpret a trial balance;
  • record and interpret financial transactions with reference to the monthly bookkeeping function.

 

Depreciable assets

 

  • Explain the purpose of depreciation;
  • calculate depreciation on non-current assets using the straight-line method;
  • calculate depreciation on non-current assets using the diminishing balance method;
  • record adjustments and closing transfers pertaining to depreciation in the general journal;
  • explain how the accumulated depreciation account works;
  • complete and interpret an asset register;
  • maintain records relating to capital acquisition and disposal; and
  • disclose property, plant and equipment in the financial statements at year-end.

 

 

 

Finalisation and interpretation of accounts

 

  • Demonstrate how a ‘year-end’ procedure is run in the books of a business;
  • explain the purpose and working of a trading account;
  • explain the purpose and working of a profit and loss account;
  • demonstrate how various year-end adjustments are used to make financial statements more realistic;
  • prepare the final accounts for a small business;
  • prepare the income statement for a small business;
  • prepare the statement of financial position for a small business;
  • apply profitability and liquidity ratios to a set of financial statements and appraise the efficiency and profitability of a small business using these tools;
  • explain the difference between gross profit, net profit and cash on hand; and
  • discuss the limitations of ratio analyses.

 

Financial statements of the sole proprietorship

 

  • Explain and demonstrate the accounting concepts of prudence, accrual and matching;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the business and accounting environment;
  • identify financial statement information for a sole trader; and
  • draft the year-end financial statements of a sole trader after passing the required year-end adjustments.

 

Partnerships

 

  • Explain and  demonstrate  the  basic  differences  between  a  sole  proprietorship  and  a partnership;
  • define and explain accounting concepts and procedures for a partnership;
  • prepare and interpret the final accounts and financial statements of a partnership; and
  • analyse the peculiar transactions of a partnership under the accounting equation.

 

Internal reporting for corporate entities

 

For close corporations:

  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of trading as a CC;
  • explain the difference between members’ interest and members’ net investment;
  • illustrate the effect of changes in membership on members’ funds and members’ interest percentages; and
  • prepare the final accounts and financial statements for a CC (with notes where applicable).

 

For companies:

  • Define a company and explain its legal status;
  • explain the advantages of trading as a company;
  • explain the difference between a public and a private company;
  • explain what is meant by shares and shareholders, stated capital and market value, as well as authorised and issued share capital;

 

  • discuss how shares are issued, and how the amounts are recorded;
  • prepare a statement of changes in equity for a limited company;
  • prepare the financial statements of a company, as well as appropriate notes to such statements;
  • discuss the general principles of consolidation; and
  • discuss the  impact  of  the  International  Financial  Reporting  Standards  (IFRS)  on  the accounting profession.

 

An Introduction to IFRS for SMMEs

 

  • Understand the  key  concepts  and  pervasive  principles  underlying  the  preparation  of financial statements using IFRS for SMEs;
  • understand the basic aspects of financial statement presentation using IFRS for SMEs; and
  • apply the recognition and measurement principles of key financial statement elements covered by IFRS for SMEs.

 

Statement of cash flows

 

  • Perform a series of asset disposal procedures in order to obtain key figures needed for the preparation of a statement of cash flows and the notes thereto;
  • calculate the amount representing cash receipts from customers during a financial year;
  • calculate the amount representing cash paid to suppliers and employees during a financial year;
  • calculate the cash outlays incurred with respect to SARS and shareholders’ dividends;
  • reconcile net profit before tax with cash generated from operations; and
  • prepare a statement of cash flows, sectored into cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities.

 

Cost and Management Accounting

 

An introduction to managerial accounting

  • Calculate the total production, administration, selling and distribution costs of a product;
  • distinguish between fixed, semi-fixed, semi- variable and variable costs;
  • carry out a simple break-even analysis;
  • calculate a selling price by using the mark-up or the margin; and
  • apply the concepts of chargeable hours and total hours worked.

 

Controlling inventory and overhead costs

 

  • Identify appropriate cost centres and elements of costs;
  • explain how inventory costs can be controlled in the most efficient way;
  • demonstrate how inventory can be valued according to the FIFO or weighted average method of valuation;
  • illustrate how  the  most  economical  ordering  quantity  for  items  of  inventory  can  be ascertained;

 

  • record and analyse information with respect to allocation, apportionment and absorption of overhead costs; and
  • establish overhead costs in accordance with the organisation’s procedures.

Accounting for a manufacturing enterprise

 

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the business and accounting environment;
  • identify and describe accounting methods in line with organisational requirements and GAAP/GRAP;
  • make the necessary double entries in the general ledger of a manufacturing concern;
  • prepare a production cost statement for a manufacturing concern;
  • prepare a trading statement for a manufacturing concern; and
  • set up  the  notes  to  the  production  cost  and  trading  statements  for  a  manufacturing concern.

Job costing

 

  • Identify the differences between job costing and process costing;
  • explain the steps involved in job costing;
  • identify overhead application rates;
  • calculate the cost of a job;
  • calculate the profit or loss of a job;
  • identify and calculate over- or under-absorbed overheads;
  • calculate the cost of a job taking into account work-in-process and finished goods;
  • identify and complete a job order cost sheet;
  • account for normal and abnormal wastage;
  • prepare relevant ledger accounts for a job costing system;
  • prepare manufacturing accounts; and
  • distinguish between work-in-progress and finished goods.

 

Budgeting and standard costing

 

  • Describe the benefits of budgeting;
  • outline the budgeting process;
  • prepare selected components of a master budget from information provided;
  • develop and monitor an office supply budget;
  • implement a plan to control the distribution of office supplies;
  • implement control measures with individuals;
  • explain what standard costing is;
  • correctly code, analyse and correct data;
  • state the advantages of using a standard costing system;
  • define a variance;
  • calculate different variances and determine whether they are favourable or unfavourable; and
  • discuss the reasons why variances occur.

Contract accounting

 

  • Explain what contract accounting/costing is;
  • understand the terminology used in contract accounting;
  • know how to record transactions relevant to a contract;
  • understand and apply the different methods of recognising revenue and profits accruing to a contract as a contract progresses in completion;
  • record all relevant transactions, ascertain profits and complete a contract work in process account;
  • post debits and credits for all categories of financial transactions;
  • understand an income statement and balance sheet;
  • explain the basics of cost and management accounting and process journal entries relevant to these transactions;
  • understand the basics of job costing; and
  • understand the role of work in progress in marshalling transactions relevant to production in cost and management accounting.

Process costing

  • Explain what process costing is;
  • explain the main components of process costing being:
  • transferring costs from one process to another;
  • accounting for wastages;
  • accounting for abnormal gains and losses in wastage;
  • accounting for scrap;
  • valuation of transfers from one process to the next;
  • account for process costing in the general ledger

 

Financial management

 

  • Explain why the time value of money is such a crucial element to consider when making financial decisions for an organisation;
  • calculate the future value of a present consideration;
  • calculate the present value of a future consideration;
  • apply various capital budgeting techniques to judge the viability of a capital investment;
  • understand the importance of financial reporting;
  • define capital and explain the various components thereof;
  • define cost of capital;
  • determine the cost of capital components;
  • explain the capital structure;
  • calculate the weighted average cost of capital;
  • explain complexities in the determination of cost of capital;
  • explain the issues in financing decisions.

 

Income Tax Returns

 

Introduction to income tax

 

  • Identify the different types and categories of taxes;

 

  • differentiate the factors in deemed South African source;
  • understand the process of the Income Tax Act;
  • identify the different tax years of assessment;
  • compute the basic taxable income of an individual and a business;
  • calculate a tax liability as per the sliding scale tax table;
  • calculate marginal and effective tax rates;
  • calculate tax thresholds from the sliding scale tax table and given tax rebates;
  • understand the pre-paid taxes system;
  • demonstrate the tax process; and
  • understand the scope and aim of the Tax Administration Act.

 

Gross income

 

  • Identify amounts that would be included in the general definition of gross income; and
  • identify amounts that are specifically included in gross income.

 

Exempt income

 

  • Identify exempt income;
  • calculate the exempt portion of gross income where the exemption is partial; and
  • calculate income for tax purposes.

 

Allowable deductions

 

  • Identify expenses which are deductible in terms of the general deduction formula;
  • identify expenses which are deductible in terms of special deductions;
  • calculate limited deductions in terms of S11;
  • calculate capital allowances;
  • calculate building allowances;
  • calculate deductions in respect of trading stock in terms of S22;
  • calculate allowable medical expenses in terms of S18 and allowable medical scheme tax credits in terms of S6A;
  • calculate allowable donations in terms of S18A;
  • identify prohibited deductions; and
  • calculate taxable income (excluding capital gains).

 

Fringe benefits and allowances

 

  • Calculate the taxable portion of a travel allowance;
  • calculate the taxable portion of a subsistence allowance;
  • determine the taxation of other allowances and identify deductions which may be claimed;
  • identify fringe benefits; and
  • determine the cash equivalent of fringe benefits for taxation purposes.

 

Employees’ tax and provisional tax

 

  • Calculate gross earnings for an employee, including allowances as well as company car and medical aid fringe benefits;

 

  • calculate ‘remuneration’ and ‘balance of remuneration’ as defined by SARS;
  • calculate ‘PAYE remuneration’, ‘SDL remuneration’ and ‘UIF remuneration’ as defined by SARS;
  • complete a monthly EMP201 return reflecting the correct calculation of PAYE, SDL and UIF due to SARS;
  • complete an annual IRP5 certificate or an IT3(a) certificate for each employee;
  • complete the annual EMP501 reconciliation for SARS;
  • explain the reasoning behind the provisional tax system;
  • demonstrate the calculations pertaining to the first provisional payment;
  • demonstrate the calculations pertaining to the second provisional payment; and
  • demonstrate the calculations pertaining to the third provisional (top up) payment.

 

Taxation of non-residents

 

  • Determine whether or not a person is a resident of South Africa for tax purposes;
  • interpret legislation relating to non-residents;
  • calculate withholding tax on specific income paid to non-residents in terms of S35, S35A and S47; and
  • determine the tax liability of a non-resident.

 

Taxation of business entities

 

  • Determine the taxable income of a sole proprietor;
  • determine the taxable income of a partner in a partnership;
  • interpret legislation related to companies, close corporations and trusts;
  • apply the laws and procedures relating to these entities;
  • classify a company as either private or public;
  • identify a group of companies;
  • determine the tax liability of a small business corporation;
  • identify dividends and deemed dividends;
  • establish the dividend cycle;
  • calculate the effective rate of tax of a company;
  • calculate dividends tax to be withheld;
  • calculate the STC credit carried forward;
  • identify the different types of trusts;
  • identify who will be liable for the tax on a trust’s income in terms of S25 and S7; and
  • determine the tax liability of a trust.

 

Turnover tax

 

  • Identify which businesses will qualify as micro businesses;
  • determine taxable turnover;
  • calculate interim tax payments;
  • calculate turnover tax payable; and
  • determine output VAT payable on de-registration as a VAT vendor due to registration as a micro business.

 

Completing tax returns

 

  • Complete ITR12 and IT14 tax returns.

Capital gains tax

 

  • Interpret legislation related to capital gains;
  • apply the laws and procedures relating to capital gains;
  • identify disposals and deemed disposals;
  • establish the time of disposal;
  • calculate the proceeds and base cost of an asset disposed of;
  • identify disallowed capital losses;
  • identify deferred capital gains;
  • identify exclusions; and
  • calculate the taxable capital gain.

Donations tax

 

  • Define donations tax;
  • identify who is liable for donations tax;
  • identify donations which are exempt from donations tax;
  • identify deemed donations;
  • understand limited interests in property;
  • value property and limited interests in property for donations tax purposes; and
  • calculate donations tax.

 

Estate duty

 

  • Interpret legislation related to estate duty;
  • apply the laws and procedures relating to estate duty;
  • identify property and deemed property to be included in the gross estate;
  • identify the deductions allowable from the gross estate;
  • calculate the dutiable estate by deducting the S4A abatement;
  • calculate estate duty payable;
  • identify rebates allowable in terms of Schedule 1 and S16; and
  • apportion estate duty liability.

 

SARS and the Tax Practitioner

 

  • Identify the need for Tax Practitioners in South Africa;
  • explain when a person should register with SARS as a Tax Practitioner;
  • explain the procedures to be followed for registration as a Tax Practitioner;
  • explain the reasons for regulation of the tax profession; and
  • list the  benefits  for  professional  membership  of  the  South  African  Institute  of  Tax Professionals (SAIT).

 

 

Business Law and Accounting Control

 

The unspoken laws of business

 

  • Explain what is meant by an ‘unspoken law’;
  • define economics;
  • distinguish between microeconomics and macroeconomics;
  • explain how  major  economic  events  such  as  a  hike  in  interest  rates,  inflation  and unemployment affects the ‘man on the street’;
  • explain the role of households, businesses, government, the foreign sector and financial institutions in the economy;
  • demonstrate the intricacies of demand and supply;
  • illustrate and explain the laws of demand and supply as well as resultant equilibrium;
  • explain how the theory of demand and supply can be used to determine what price to charge for a product;
  • explain the determinants of demand and supply, and demonstrate how such determinants can affect the equilibrium point;
  • explain what is meant by inflation, what causes inflation and what can be done to control it; and
  • explain why inflation is a problem.

 

The written laws of business

 

  • Discuss the sources of South African law;
  • differentiate between public and private law;
  • discuss the stare decisis rule and the jurisdictions of the various courts of law;
  • differentiate between civil action and civil application proceedings;
  • distinguish between appeal and review proceedings;
  • define a contract;
  • define the term ‘obligation’;
  • discuss the essentials for a valid contract;
  • differentiate between the concepts of a valid, void and voidable contract with reference to practical examples;
  • define the terms ‘unjust enrichment’ and ‘delict’;
  • discuss the elements to be proven for delictual liability to occur;
  • differentiate between the contractual capacity of minors under the age of seven years, those over the age of seven years but under the age of 18 years and finally those over the age of 18 years;
  • differentiate between a contract that is void ab initio and supervening impossibility;
  • discuss which  contracts  have  formalities  which  must  be  adhered  to  before  they  are considered valid;
  • identify the five forms of breach of contract;
  • discuss and identify prevention of performance as a form of breach and the requirements that must be met to prove that such breach has occurred;
  • list and explain the remedies available to an innocent party to a contract when breach has occurred; and
  • differentiate between the term ‘breach’ and ‘termination’ of contracts;

 

Managing your personal finances

 

  • Prepare a personal/household budget;
  • explain the factors that have a bearing on one’s investment decisions;
  • explain the difference between ‘saving’ and ‘investing’;
  • outline the various asset classes in an investment portfolio;
  • demonstrate how switches between asset classes at strategic intervals can enhance the value of an investment portfolio;
  • outline and discuss the investment vehicles suitable for retirement planning;
  • explain the working, construction and use of unit trusts and endowment policies in an investor’s investment portfolio;
  • explain why risk cover is an essential component of every prudent investor’s investment portfolio;
  • briefly discuss the need and working of short-term insurance products; and
  • explain why  efficient  debt  management  is  so  important,  and  how  it  can  be  applied effectively.

 

Accounting systems – Internal control concepts

 

  • Outline, demonstrate and discuss the basic premises of internal control.

 

Managing accounting systems

 

  • Outline, demonstrate and discuss the management of accounting systems, with specific reference to the various revenue and expenditure cycles.

 

Accounting systems – Stock control

 

  • Explain how stock control can be applied and controlled most effectively in an organisation.

Accounting systems – Analytical review

 

  • Demonstrate how analytical reviews are conducted to ascertain the validity and integrity of internal control and internal audit.

 

Liquidation and executors’ accounts

 

  • Explain what is meant by ‘estate planning’;
  • explain the consequences of dying intestate;
  • demonstrate the various permutations of intestate succession;
  • outline the basic legislation relating to estate planning;
  • calculate estate duty payable on the estate of a deceased;
  • explain the basis premises of donations tax and how this tax has a bearing on estate planning;
  • outline the main function of the Master with respect to deceased and insolvent estates;
  • explain the roles of dependents, minors, tutors, trustees and curators with respect to deceased estates;
  • discuss the appointment procedures of tutors and curators;

 

  • outline ways by which estate duty can be reduced;
  • demonstrate the working of executors’, tutors’ and curators’ accounts;
  • administer insolvent  estates,  with  particular  reference  to  liquidation  and  distribution accounts;
  • explain the difference between voluntary surrender and compulsory sequestration;
  • outline the various acts of insolvency;
  • explain the role of the trustee and the effect of sequestration on the insolvent’s property; and
  • prepare the accounts used to administer the insolvent estate.

 

Corporate Strategy

 

Introduction to strategic management

  • Define strategic management;
  • outline the strategic management process;
  • name the people involved in the strategic management process;
  • identify the building blocks of strategic management;
  • describe the various levels of strategic management;
  • discuss other aspects that will impact on strategy formulation; and
  • explain the advantages of strategic management.

Formulating a strategic direction

 

  • Discuss the importance of strategic direction;
  • formulate a strategic vision;
  • formulate a strategic mission;
  • explain the interrelationship between a vision and a mission;
  • discuss the core values that support a vision and mission; and
  • understand that strategic positioning happens in a competitive environment.

The context of strategic selection

 

  • Analyse the external or macro environment in which a business operates;
  • analyse the industry environment in which a business operates;
  • conduct internal environmental analysis; and
  • discuss the objective of internal and external scanning.

The formulation of corporate goals and objectives

  • Understand the process of formulating long-term goals and objectives for a business;
  • identify the focus areas of long-term goals;
  • outline the cascading process of goals and objectives;
  • describe the qualities of long-term objectives;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the criteria used when formulating long-term goals;
  • explain the link between goals/objectives and key performance areas; and
  • identify strategies that will advance goals and objectives.

 

 

Strategy identification and formulation

 

  • Distinguish between the five generic competitive strategies;
  • discuss more focused corporate strategies;
  • illustrate an understanding of external and internal growth strategies;
  • outline the different decline strategies a business can make use of;
  • examine corporate combination strategies; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of strategy analysis and evaluation.

Strategy evaluation and selection

 

  • Discuss the importance of strategy evaluation;
  • identify the criteria for effective strategies;
  • understand the decision-making process;
  • distinguish between  the  different  models  that  can  be  used  to  evaluate  and  analyse strategies; and
  • plan for change in an organisation.

Strategy implementation

 

  • Identify the barriers to the successful implementation of a strategy;
  • outline the drivers and instruments that facilitate strategy implementation; and
  • translate long-term strategic objectives into short-term strategies.

 

Continuous improvement through strategic control and evaluation

  • Discuss strategic control as an element of the strategic management process;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the balanced scorecard;
  • identify the relationship between strategic control and corporate governance; and
  • outline the approaches which can be used to build competitive advantage.

Strategic management and non-profit organisations

 

  • Discuss the  benefits  for  non-profit  organisations  of  making  use  of  the  strategic management process;
  • identify the sources of income for non-profit organisations;
  • demonstrate an understanding of strategic planning for non-profit organisations;
  • identify useful strategies which can be implemented by non-profit organisations; and
  • explain the purpose of strategic alliances.

 

Management Accounting Control Systems

 

Activity-based costing

 

  • Distinguish between traditional costing systems and ABC;

 

  • calculate product overhead costs using ABC;
  • make use of unit-based drivers to assign overheads; and
  • discuss the advantages and limitations of ABC.

Cost classification, estimation and behaviour

 

  • Differentiate between fixed, variable and mixed costs;
  • estimate the fixed and variable elements of a mixed cost making use of the high-low method;
  • apply the least squares regression method to study trends in financial data; and
  • demonstrate how the learning curve theory can be used to calculate the amount of time necessary to complete a task.

Cost-volume-profit analysis

 

  • List the underlying assumptions of CVP analysis;
  • discuss the difference between the economist’s view and the accountant’s view of the CVP graph;
  • demonstrate how mathematics can be used in CVP analysis;
  • demonstrate how break-even analysis should be applied in an environment characterised by multiple products; and
  • illustrate how a change in inputs in the CVP equation will give rise to a change in profits and break-even points.

Linear programming

 

  • Define and list the underlying assumptions of linear programming;
  • formulate a linear programming equation;
  • demonstrate the effects of shadow pricing; and
  • outline the limitations of linear programming.

Standard costing

 

  • Discuss the need for making use of standard costing;
  • differentiate between the different types of standards used in standard costing;
  • conduct variance calculations;
  • reconcile budgeted to actual profit; and
  • conduct variance calculations using the additional variances included under a standard absorption costing system.

Relevant costs

 

  • Explain the significance of relevant costs to the decision-making process;
  • explain the importance of qualitative factors in financial decision-making processes; and
  • apply relevant costing in financial decision-making.

Expected value theory and decision trees

 

  • Define the nature and use of expected value theory;
  • describe the advantages and limitations of expected value theory;
  • demonstrate how decision trees are used as a decision-making tool; and
  • describe the advantages and limitations of decision trees.

Pricing policy and transfer pricing

 

  • Discuss the role and purpose of a pricing policy;
  • explain what is meant by an optimum price and output level;
  • explain the purpose of a market penetration pricing strategy;
  • outline the steps to be followed during target costing;
  • outline the advantages and disadvantages of target costing; and
  • explain and apply transfer pricing.

Budgeting

 

  • Explain the definition of a budget and the budgeting process;
  • distinguish between fixed and flexible budgets;
  • draft the different components of a master budget; and
  • outline the advantages and disadvantages of zero-based budgeting.

Divisional performance evaluation

 

  • Explain what is meant by responsibility accounting;
  • outline potential problems that may arise with inter-divisional performance measurement;
  • describe the significance of organisational structures in managerial decision-making; and
  • demonstrate how key performance measurement indicators for divisions are applied in a corporate environment.

 

Financial Reporting and Regulatory Frameworks

 

Introduction  to  International  Financial  Reporting  Standards  (IFRS)  and  the   Conceptual Framework

 

  • Discuss the need for a regulatory framework in accounting;
  • discuss the process of harmonisation of accounting standards;
  • demonstrate an  understanding  of  the  process  followed  when  international  accounting standards are set or amended; and
  • outline the  basic  premises  of  the  International  Accounting  Standards  Board  (IASB) Framework.

 

IAS 1 – Presentation of financial statements

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the requirements for the preparation of financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards;
  • prepare a set of financial statements which is compliant with International Financial Reporting Standards;

 

  • explain the general considerations that need to be adhered to when preparing a set of financial statements for a company.

 

 

IAS 16 – Property, plant and equipment

 

  • Explain how property, plant and equipment (and its different components) must be recognised in financial statements;
  • explain how land and buildings is recognised in financial statements;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how property, plant and equipment is measured at recognition;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how property, plant and equipment is measured after recognition;
  • discuss when property, plant and equipment should be derecognised; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to property, plant and equipment.

 

IAS 40 – Investment property

 

  • Explain how investment property is recognised in financial statements;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how investment property is measured at recognition;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how investment property is measured after recognition;
  • explain when transfers to/from investment property may be made;
  • discuss when investment property should be derecognised; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to investment property.

 

IAS 36 – Impairment of assets

 

  • Explain how to identify an impaired asset;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to measure the recoverable amount;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to recognise an impairment loss;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to reverse an impairment loss; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to the impairment of assets.

 

IAS 38 – Intangible assets

 

  • Explain how to identify an intangible asset;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to measure intangible assets at recognition:
  • explain when internally generated intangible assets should be recognised;
  • explain the expenditure on intangible assets that should be expensed when incurred;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to measure intangible assets after recognition;
  • discuss the useful life of an intangible asset;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to amortise intangible assets with finite useful lives;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to amortise intangible assets with indefinite useful lives;
  • discuss when intangible property should be retired/disposed of and derecognised; and

 

  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to intangible assets.

 

 

IAS 2 – Inventories

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how to measure inventories;
  • discuss the recognition of expenses when inventories are sold; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to inventory.

 

IAS 37 – Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

 

  • Discuss when provisions are recognised;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to measure provisions;
  • discuss how reimbursements on provisions should be recognised;
  • discuss when changes in provisions should be made;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to apply the recognition and measurement rules; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to provisions.

 

IAS 17 – Leases

 

  • Discuss the classification of leases;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how leases are recognised in the financial statements of lessees; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of how leases are recognised in the financial statements of lessors.

 

Financial instruments

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how financial instruments are presented in financial statements (IAS32);
  • demonstrate an understanding of how financial instruments are measured and recognised (IAS39); and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to financial instruments (IFRS7).

 

IAS10 – Events after the reporting period

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how events that happen after the reporting period are recognised and measured in the financial statements;
  • explain the concept of a going concern; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regard to events that happened after the reporting period.

 

IAS18 – Revenue

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how revenue is measured;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how revenue from the sale of goods is recognised;

 

  • demonstrate an understanding of how revenue from the rendering of services is recognise;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how revenue from interest, royalties and dividends is recognised; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to revenue.

 

IAS19 – Employee benefits

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how short-term employee benefits are recognised, measured and disclosed;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how termination benefits are recognised, measured and disclosed; and
  • distinguish between defined contribution plans and defined benefit plans.

 

IAS21 – The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates

 

  • Explain the difference between monetary and non-monetary items;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the reporting of foreign currency transactions in the functional currency; and
  •  outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to foreign exchange transactions.

 

IAS33 – Earnings per share

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how basic earnings per share is measured;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how diluted earnings per share is measured; and
  • outline the disclosures that should be made in the financial statements with regards to earnings per share.

 

IAS12 – Income taxes

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how to recognise, measure and present current tax;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to recognise, measure and present deferred tax; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to recognise, measure and present deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets.

 

IAS8 – Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the criteria used to select and change accounting policies;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the accounting treatment and disclosure of changes in accounting estimates; and
  • demonstrate and understanding of the accounting treatment and disclosure of the correction of errors.

 

IAS7 – Statement of cash flows

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the statement of cash flows is presented;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how cash flow from interest and dividends received and paid must be disclosed;
  • explain how cash flows from taxes on income must be disclosed;

 

  • discuss how cash and cash equivalents must be disclosed; and
  • identify other disclosures that must be made in the statement of cash flows.

 

Consolidated financial statements

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of consolidation procedures;
  • discuss different group accounts and group structures;
  • explain when a parent company’s consolidated financial statements should be presented;
  • explain the disclosures required in consolidated financial statements;
  • explain how to identify a business combination;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to apply the acquisition method;
  • demonstrate an understanding of consolidation after acquisition; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of consolidated statements of cash flows.

 

Financial reporting requirements of the Companies Act 2008

 

  • Explain when the financial year end of a company may change;
  • discuss the requirements for the completion and storing of accounting records;
  • explain the criteria that the financial statements of a company must meet; and
  • explain the regulatory requirements that the annual financial statements of a company must meet.

 

Public Sector Accounting Programme

Refer to the curriculum statements under the Accounting Programme for the following subjects:

  • Bookkeeping to Trial Balance
  • Computerised Bookkeeping
  • Business Literacy
  • Financial Statements
  • Cost and Management Accounting
  • Business Law and Accounting Control
  • Corporate Strategy
  • Management Accounting Control Systems
  • Financial Reporting and Regulatory Frameworks

 

Public Accounting Administration

 

Introduction to income tax

 

  • Identify the different types and categories of taxes;
  • differentiate the factors in deemed South African source;
  • understand the process of the Income Tax Act;
  • identify the different tax years of assessment;
  • compute the basic taxable income of an individual;
  • calculate a tax liability as per the sliding scale tax table;
  • calculate marginal and effective tax rates;

 

  • calculate tax thresholds from the sliding scale tax table and given tax rebates;
  • understand the pre-paid taxes system;
  • demonstrate the tax process; and
  • understand the scope and aim of the Tax Administration Act.

 

Payroll administration

 

  • Identify and solve problems relating to the payroll schedule and tasks using critical and creative thinking processes;
  • work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community in order to complete all the necessary payroll tasks timeously;
  • organise and manage yourself and your activities responsibly and effectively in order to implement all tasks effectively;
  • collect, analyse  organise  and  critically  evaluate  information  relating  to  payroll  tasks, schedules and deadlines;
  •   communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and or language skills in the modes of oral and written persuasion in order to gather all the necessary information for planning purposes;
  • use science and technology effectively and critically in order to manage the payroll function effectively, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others; and
  •   demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of interrelated systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts relating to the planning and scheduling of the payroll function do not exist in isolation.

 

Employees’ tax

 

  • Calculate gross earnings for an employee, including allowances as well as company car and medical aid fringe benefits;
  • calculate ‘remuneration’ and ‘balance of remuneration’ as defined by SARS;
  • calculate ‘PAYE remuneration’, ‘SDL remuneration’ and ‘UIF remuneration’ as defined by SARS;
  • complete a monthly EMP201 return reflecting the correct calculation and payment of PAYE, SDL and UIF due to SARS;
  • complete an annual IRP5 certificate or an IT3(a) certificate for each employee; and
  • complete the annual EMP501 reconciliation for SARS.

 

Accounting for payroll

 

  • Calculate wages from either time records or a productivity scheme;
  • make and record the correct deductions;
  • record all payroll components in the appropriate wages or salaries register; and
  • post the wages and salaries registers as well as the cashbook payments to the general ledger to affect the double entries for payroll.

 

Completing tax returns

 

  • Complete an ITR12 tax return.

 

The structure of the South African public sector

 

  • Explain the context of the public sector and define its components, including basis of funding, legislation, role, structure, reporting and interrelationships;
  • identify the features which contribute to the uniqueness of the public sector;
  • compare the similarities between the public and the private sector;
  • identify and explain the characteristics and/or concepts of South Africa’s three spheres of government;
  • identify legislative institutions in South Africa’s central government system and explain the role of each institution;
  • identify executive institutions in South Africa’s government and explain the role of each institution; and
  • identify judicial institutions in South Africa’s government system and explain the role of each institution.

 

The role of the financial management system in the public sector

 

  • Explain how the financial management system assists the government to translate its strategy into action;
  • explain how the financial management system informs decision making and accountability;
  • explain how the financial management system encourages a responsive and efficient public sector;
  • explain the role of the office of the Auditor-General and Public Accounts Committee in relation to the financial management system in a public service organisation and parlia- ment;
  • identify the reporting responsibilities of the office of the Auditor-General and the Public Ac- counts Committee;
  • explain the role of the Accountant-General and the Accounting Officer in relation to the financial management system in a public service organisation and parliament;
  • identify the reporting responsibilities of the Accountant-General and the Accounting Officer;
  • explain and describe the role of the Institute of Public Finance and Auditing;
  • understand and explain the methods of controlling public sector finance;
  • explain reporting outcomes and outputs and why these inform organisational decision making; and
  • outline the fiscal links between operational management and performance obligations within public sector organisations.

 

Revenue as a key aspect of public financial management

 

  • Identify and describe revenue as a key aspect of public financial management;
  • describe the different sources of public revenue and the amount of discretion that is avail- able;
  • explain the principles of appropriation of income, including systems of priority setting;
  • describe the intergovernmental fiscal system, including the DORA; and
  • explain the trends in public revenue reporting and control.

 

Expenditure as a key aspect of public financial management

 

  • Identify and describe expenditure as a key aspect of public financial management;
  • describe all forms of public expenditure;
  • explain the trends in public expenditure reporting and control; and
  • explain the key factors underlying public expenditure trends.

 

The legislative framework governing financial management in the public sector

  • Describe the legislation that supports the public sector financial management system;
  • identify and discuss the intent and the main purpose of the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA);
  • identify and discuss the key features and principles of the PFMA;
  • identify and discuss the intent and the main purpose of the Municipal Finance Manage- ment Act (MFMA);
  • identify and discuss the key features and principles of the MFMA;
  • identify and discuss the main purpose of the treasury regulations;
  • identify and discuss the key features and principles of the treasury regulations;
  • identify and discuss the main purpose of GAAP/GRAP within the context of the public sector; and
  • identify and discuss the key features and principles of GAAP/GRAP within the context of the public sector.

 

Ethics in the South African public sector

 

  • Demonstrate knowledge of ethics in the South African public sector;
  • identify and describe core public sector ethical values;
  • describe and identify reasons for ethical standards in the public sector;
  • describe and identify two recent case studies reported in the public arena that illustrates the importance of ethical values and standards within the public sector;
  • identify and  explain  the  importance  of  ethical  values  and  standards  within  your organisation and the role of ethical values in that organisation;
  • demonstrate knowledge of the public service code of conduct;
  • explain the purpose of the public service code of conduct;
  • identify and explain the principles contained in the public service code of conduct in the context of their implications for a public service organisation;
  • identify and explain the principles contained in the public service code of conduct in the context of their implications for a public service employees;
  •      identify other codes of conduct and/or ethics that operate in the public service organisation in which you work, and explain the relationship between this code and the public service code of conduct;
  • demonstrate knowledge of the ethics and value of the profession;
  • analyse practical situations to make judgements in relation to the applicable code of professional conduct;
  • apply professional judgement to practical situations in accordance with the applicable code of professional conduct; and
  • exercise professional judgement in line with the organisational code of ethics.

 

Introduction to supply chain management

 

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the supply chain management cycle;
  • define the responsibilities of the various role players in the supply chain management cycle;
  • describe and  define  the  elements  of  the  supply  chain  management  cycle  (demand, acquisition, logistics, supply chain performance);
  • explain the reporting arrangements;
  • demonstrate knowledge of the procurement process;
  • explain the procurement processes and procedures;
  • demonstrate the procedures for procurement;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the specific guidelines, policies and requirements for creating a supply chain management framework;
  • describe other related policy initiatives and explain their relationship;
  • identify the key issues that are likely to arise within the workplace by the implementation of supply chain management (including political, ethical, moral, financial etc.); and
  • demonstrate an understanding of the responsibilities of the Accounting Officers/authorities for supply chain management

 

Introduction to cash management

 

  • Identify procedures for dealing with cash sales in terms of security;
  • identify the acceptability of cheques in terms of liability, security and limitations;
  • explain why cash receipts and payments should be monitored and controlled against budgeted cash flows;
  • ensure that monies received are treated according to organisational procedures;
  • deposit monies received in a bank account (or hold it in safekeeping) in accordance with organisational procedures;
  • follow internal control procedures;
  • explain the  separation  of  functions  in  the  accounts  payable  and  accounts  receivable processes; and
  • ensure that payments are made according to organisational procedures.

 

Introduction to credit management

  • Understand the concept of credit management;
  • identify forms of credit that might be granted;
  • explain the advantages and disadvantages of extending credit;
  • explain the business process of accounts receivable;
  • explain the separation of functions in the accounts receivable process;
  • manage debtors in accordance with the organisation’s credit management policy;
  • assess credit worthiness;
  • identify internal and external sources of information the evaluate the current credit status of customers and potential customers;
  • understand that new accounts can only be opened for those customers with an established credit status;
  • agree credit terms with customers in accordance with the organisation’s policies;
  • discuss the reasons for refusing credit with customers in a tactful manner;
  • prepare statements of account and send it to debtors timeously;
  • use relevant source documents to communicate with debtors;

 

  • monitor and control the collection of debts;
  • identify the consequences of the acceptance of credit cards as a form of payment;
  • identify the  effect  of  the  use  of  credit  card systems  in  terms  of  increased  company revenue;
  • produce and interpret an accurate debtors age analysis;
  • take effective steps to collect debt before it becomes unrecoverable;
  • know and understand the debt recovery strategies and procedures in accordance with organisational procedures;
  • monitor information relating to the current state of debtors accounts regularly and ensure that appropriate action is taken;
  • send information  regarding  significant  outstanding  accounts  and  potential  bad  debts promptly to the relevant individuals in the organisation;
  • ensure that  discussion  and  negotiations  with  debtors  are  conducted  courteously  and achieve the desired outcomes;
  • ensure that debt recovery methods used are appropriate to the circumstances of individual cases and are in accordance with the organisation’s procedures; and
  • understand the importance of recommendations to write off bad and doubtful debts – based on a realistic analysis of all known factors.

 

Technical Public Accounting

 

Basic economic principles

 

  • Explain basic economic concepts;
  • describe the relationship between economic concepts;
  • identify and describe basic economic systems;
  • explain the concept of economic growth;
  • identify factors that influence economic growth;
  • describe and explain the market mechanism and characteristics of markets;
  • illustrate the market mechanisms and changes in market conditions;
  • describe government’s fiscal policy;
  • explain the role of government in the economy;
  • describe and critically appraise instruments of fiscal policy;
  • describe government’s monetary policy; and
  • describe and critically appraise instruments of monetary policy.

 

Management information systems

 

  • Identify the objectives of management information systems;
  • contribute to improving the quality of management information systems;
  • suggest improvements to information systems;
  • coordinate work activities within the accounting environment;
  • identify opportunities to improve the effectiveness of an accounting system;
  • identify and report on control deficiencies in an accounting system; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of the management and accounting environment.

 

Public sector financial statements

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the framework for drafting public sector financial state- ments;
  • draft public sector financial statements;
  • interpret public sector financial statements;
  • draft consolidated public sector financial statements.

Risk management in the public sector

 

  • Interpret risk management strategy, policy and related processes and procedures;
  • describe the concept of risk management in a public sector environment;
  • identify preventive, detective, corrective and directive actions to reduce risks;
  • define an organisation’s risk management policy;
  • recommend possible mechanisms to minimise risks;
  • formulate a framework for minimising risk;
  • demonstrate how to select the most appropriate mechanism to minimise risks for a par- ticular function; and
  • justify reasons for recommending a particular mechanism.

 

Performance management in the public sector

 

  • Define the outcomes and benefits to be achieved with performance measurement;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the performance measurement system implementation process; and
  • evaluate approaches to the management of performance in the public sector.

 

Project management in the public sector

 

  • Define a project and explain the differing nature of projects;
  • describe the major constraints on the completion of projects;
  • draft a project plan; and
  • evaluate a project plan.

Planning, budgeting and management accounting in the public sector

 

  • explain the role and functions of the management accounting unit within a government department;
  • explain the budget process in government, requirements and timelines;
  • describe the purpose and contents of departmental planning and budgeting documents;
  • describe and explain the link between the operational budget and the MTEF, strategic plan, programmes, sub-programmes and projects;
  • describe the different budgeting methods and prepare budgets based on these methods;
  • describe the key concepts used for budgeting and their applications;
  • identify information required for preparing plans and budgets from internal and external sources;
  • describe and calculate different types of costs;
  • plan, account for and monitor the process for adjustment estimates;
  • assess the need for virements and rollovers;
  • describe the communication processes with budget holders to agree draft budgets;

 

  • consolidate information and complete reporting templates required by treasury;
  • monitor cash receipts and payments against budgeted cash flow and prior month’s in-year monitoring templates;
  • identify significant deviations from the cash budget and take corrective action observing organisational policies;
  • prepare the required budget templates with explanations of assumptions and projections;
  • calculate the effects of variations in service delivery targets on costs and vice versa;
  • analyse and interpret trends between current year’s actual and budgeted expenditure and current and prior year expenditure;
  • describe the concept of assumptions and how they are applied;
  • make recommendations based on the analysis in a clear and concise way;
  • balance monthly  cash  flow  and  adjusted  cash  flow  to  the  estimates  of  expenditure/ adjusted estimates of expenditure;
  • describe the structures of government and how the cash flows from the treasury are disbursed to the departments;
  • determine the likely pattern of cash flows over the accounting period, including exceptional receipts or payments;
  • follow-up on differences and identify outstanding payments to be made;
  • identify the type of information and reports obtained from different systems.

Office Administration Programme

 

 

Refer to the curriculum statements under the Accounting Programme for the following subjects:

  • Bookkeeping to Trial Balance
  • Business Literacy
  • Financial Statements
  • Cost and Management Accounting

 

Business and Office Administration 1

The role of the receptionist

 

  • Outline the duties and tasks of a receptionist;
  • create and maintain a clean, safe and presentable reception area according to organisational standards;
  • greet customers and identify their needs;
  • handle customers’ telephone, facsimile and electronic requests appropriately;
  • give appropriate responses to customers in a face-to-face situation and on the telephone;
  • receive and direct visitors in accordance with organisational policies and requirements; and
  • describe and apply security procedures in accordance with organisational policies and requirements.

 

Handling mail

 

  • Receive mail according to established procedures;

 

  • sort mail according to established procedures;
  • stamp mail correctly according to established requirements;
  • provide reasons for stamping incoming mail;
  • attach enclosures securely and report missing items in accordance with set procedures;
  • describe the importance of maintaining confidentiality and security of documentation in terms of receiving and sorting mail;
  • observe confidentiality in terms of a mailroom code of conduct;
  • distribute mail internally to relevant persons within an agreed time;
  • explain possible reasons for unavoidable or necessary delays in distribution, and describe the consequences of such delays;
  • address mail legibly and correctly for internal and external distribution;
  • describe procedures  for  dispatching  mail  externally  in  accordance  with  established procedures and post office requirements;
  • dispatch mail externally via the post office or a courier service within agreed deadlines; and
  • explain the legal implications of neglecting to comply with mailroom procedures in terms of own work performance and possible cost to company.

 

Record management systems

  • Provide reasons why companies record and keep information;
  • identify the structure, components, equipment and supplies required for electronic and paper filing systems;
  • use procedures appropriate to the workplace for opening, closing and retaining files;
  • select and use appropriate storage and retrieval methods for electronic and paper records;
  • handle records in a manner which complies with statutes and regulations governing the privacy of information and the retention of records;
  • develop a schedule for retention and disposal of records;
  • provide reasons for internal control; and
  • identify problems with inadequate internal controls and make suggestions for improvement.

The role and function of the secretary

 

  • Demonstrate an  understanding  of  the  role  and  the  function  of  a  secretary  in  an organisation;
  • indicate the traditional technical skills required by secretaries;
  • identify additional skills which are likely required;
  • advise a junior employee on performance;
  • appreciate the importance of good telephone etiquette;
  • demonstrate competence as a secretary in an organisation;
  • demonstrate competence in handling routine business correspondence;
  • draft memoranda, minutes and reports; and
  • demonstrate skills and ability to organise.

Introduction to Computing

 

  • Discuss the history of computers briefly;
  • learn what a PC is and how it basically works;

 

  • identify the main components of PC Hardware;
  • understand why upgrading a PC is important;
  • identify various PC Software applications;
  • differentiate between hardware and software;
  • understand the interaction between Hardware and Software using the IPOS cycle;
  • understand what networks are used for;
  • identify the basic components of networks; and
  • explain the advantages and disadvantages of using computers.

The Windows Operating System

 

  • Understand where the windows concept comes from;
  • learn how to use basic tools in Windows;
  • learn how to Log On to your PC;
  • identify the desktop and the taskbar;
  • identify objects in Windows;
  • use the recycle bin;
  • identify tooltips;
  • identify common Window components;
  • learn how to control multiple opened Windows;
  • learn how to start a programme;
  • use the help, support and search tools;
  • learn how to adjust PC hardware and PC software properties;
  • learn how to change basic mouse properties;
  • view the display properties;
  • understand user accounts;
  • add and remove programmes;
  • learn what drivers are;
  • use Windows Explorer to browse and create folders;
  • open and navigate through the Windows Explorer structure;
  • learn how to work with files and folders in Windows Explorer;
  • create and save a document in Windows; and
  • know how to launch a programme.

Working with Internet and Email

  • learn what e-mail is;
  • distinguish the difference between Internet e-mail and network e-mail;
  • identify the various Outlook components;
  • compose messages in Outlook;
  • learn how to format messages;
  • learn how to open a message;
  • learn how to add an attachment to e-mail;
  • understand why and how to create e-mail folders;
  • learn how to move messages to a folder;
  • understand how contacts work in Outlook;
  • learn how to add and delete contacts in the address book;

 

  • use the help function in Outlook;
  • working with electronic calendars;
  • schedule appointments and meetings in an electronic diary;
  • create and manage contact in an electronic diary;
  • understand Internet Basics;
  • distinguish between the Intranet and the extranet;
  • understand what viruses are;
  • identify a web browser;
  • understand what the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is;
  • identify the Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 Interface;
  • use web-base tools;
  • download programs and files from the web;
  • understand the workings of a search engine;
  • search the web and getting usable information.

 

The rules of typing

  • understand the  correct  postures  and  techniques  to  use  your  computer  safely  and effectively;
  • learn the basic typing rules and manuscript signs;
  • understand where to place your fingers on the keyboard;
  • understand the basic techniques of touch typing;
  • work out how fast you can type; and
  • be aware that typing software can increase your typing speed.

Creating business documents

  • produce an advanced business letter;
  • produce an advanced official letter/formal report;
  • produce display documents and documents used at meetings, suitable for publishing on A4 and A5 paper;
  • prepare a notice, agenda and minutes of a meeting;
  • prepare a table on A4 portrait and A4 landscape paper;
  • prepare a legal document and a company document;
  • produce a set of financial statements; and
  • prepare a curriculum vitae and a memorandum.

 

Marketing Management and Public Relations

 

Basic concepts in marketing management

  • Describe the concept of ‘marketing’;
  • explain the differences between consumer needs and consumer wants;
  • use a model of needs to identify marketing applications;
  • differentiate between ‘goods’ and ‘services’;

 

  • explain how marketing efforts relate to the success of a business;
  • identify the different types of utilities;
  • explain how marketing has developed and changed over the years;
  • describe the marketing concept in detail;
  • understand the relevance of micro and macro marketing with respect to the marketing effort;
  • differentiate between three types of economies;
  • understand the different functions that support the marketing function; and
  • provide examples of competitive advantages.

The internal marketing environment

  • Distinguish the components of a marketing environment;
  • describe the organisation as the micro environment;
  • describe the main purposes of three types of organisations;
  • explain the concept of a marketing function;
  • differentiate between four types of organisational structures;
  • describe the impact of these structures on customer service;
  • identify the relationships between marketing and the other functions;
  • discuss the interdependence of the different functions;
  • explain the role of employees in a marketing oriented organisation;
  • apply a systems model to a practical example;
  • differentiate between the levels of planning and management;
  • explain how sales and marketing fit into the organisation; and
  • explain why different functions need to be interdependent.

The external marketing environment

  • Explain the impact of the external environment on the organisation;
  • describe the categorisation of the three environments and the impact they have on an organisation;
  • assess the level of rivalry in an industry using a competitor analysis model;
  • understand the market environment and its components;
  • understand the macro environment and its components;
  • identify the components and functions of social responsibility;
  • understand the dynamics of ethical behaviour in marketing; and
  • describe key ethical issues relating to marketing in South Africa.

Formulating a marketing strategy

  • Explain the process of establishing strategic objectives;
  • understand the eight functions of marketing;
  • explain the key terms used in the process of strategic marketing planning;
  • describe the influences of the macro environment on an organisation;
  • conduct a competitor analysis following a prescribed process;
  • use a model to assess the level of competitiveness of an industry;
  • determine what gives an organisation its competitive advantage;

 

  • identify and describe the criteria for segmenting consumer markets;
  • apply the different market segmentation approaches to specific South African companies;
  • meet the prerequisites for setting effective marketing objectives;
  • identify internal and external stakeholders of an organisation;
  • explain the purpose of the marketing mix and its elements; and
  • understand the role of public relations in the marketing mix.

Understanding ‘Product’ in the marketing mix

  • Explain the role of product in the marketing mix;
  • describe why marketers have to differentiate between services and products;
  • provide practical examples of the core, actual and augmented components of a product;
  • understand the different product classes and understand the reasons why each class is marketed differently;
  • use strategic tools to categorise the viability of products and identify the most appropriate strategy to adopt;
  • describe how a marketing strategy will have to be adjusted during the product life cycle;
  • identify criteria for making product decisions regarding the design and development of a container or wrapper for a product;
  • identify key criteria for making product labelling decisions;
  • understand the market conditions that would necessitate a change in packaging strategy; and
  • explain the steps involved in new product development.

Understanding ‘Place’ in the marketing mix

  • Understand the role of place in the marketing mix;
  • describe the four distribution channels;
  • explain the key of intermediaries in distribution and marketing;
  • identify the key players in the marketing channel;
  • describe the nature of channel conflict;
  • define the factors which need to be considered in the selection of an appropriate channel;
  • categorise the different forms of businesses that fall under each middleman category;
  • identify strategic distribution channel alternatives;
  • describe the changes in distribution strategy required to suit the changing stages of the product in the product life cycle;
  • appreciate the importance of physical distribution in marketing; and
  • identify the most appropriate method of transport for specific products.

Understanding ‘Price’ in the marketing mix

  • Understand the concept of price in the context of the marketing mix;
  • discuss the importance of pricing decisions to the organisation;
  • identify a variety of marketing objectives and select appropriate pricing strategies;
  • differentiate between the four key pricing strategies and their applications;
  • understand the basic economic principles involved in the relationship between price and supply and demand;

 

  • identify and describe the most effective tactics needed to increase sales;
  • calculate final prices using four common pricing methods;
  • explain the concept of a break-even point in pricing;
  • describe how pricing decisions change as a product moves through different stages of the product life cycle; and
  • consider the impact of pricing strategies and their impact on the public relations arena.

 

Understanding ‘Promotion’ in the marketing mix

  • Explain how promotion fits in with the other components of the marketing mix;
  • apply a communications model to a practical marketing communications situation;
  • distinguish between the marketing mix and the promotional mix;
  • identify the key components of promotion;
  • identify the key media used in advertising;
  • identify the key activities involved in sales promotion;
  • explain the nature of personal selling;
  • contrast the functions of public relations and marketing;
  • explain the relationship between integrated marketing communications and promotions;
  • describe how promotional strategies change as the product moves through the product life- cycle;
  • categorise a variety of marketing activities under the relevant component of the marketing mix; and
  • explain five methods of designing a promotional budget.

The role of public relations and mass communication in business

  • Outline the background and history of the development of public relations as a profession;
  • create a link between public relations and communication;
  • define public relations;
  • explain the purpose of public relations;
  • illustrate diagrammatically the systematic nature of public relations;
  • illustrate the reasons for practising public relations;
  • link public relations to the concepts of responsibility and ethics;
  • describe how the public relations profession self-regulates;
  • outline the  different  techniques  used  by  public  relations  professionals  to  achieve organisational objectives;
  • explain the role the public relations professional fulfils in an organisation;
  • describe the technical tasks a public relations professional performs;
  • list the  skills,  qualifications  and  personal  characteristics  required  for  success  in  the profession;
  • identify and detail the different communication media/channels used in public relations;
  • understand the importance of mass communication to public relations and communication in general;
  • recognise the functional differences between the various public relations media; and
  • discuss the key issues facing the public relations professional in the future.

Integration – Formulating a strategic marketing plan

 

  • Understand what is meant by the term strategic marketing planning;
  • describe the purposes of marketing planning;
  • explain the key terms used in the process of strategic marketing planning;
  • construct a model representing the strategic marketing process;
  • analyse the components of a mission statement;
  • formulate effective marketing objectives;
  • conduct a situational analysis (SWOT);
  • conduct a competitor analysis following a prescribed format;
  • explain the importance of competitive advantage for an organisation;
  • describe the relevance and process of target market selection;
  • describe the positioning process;
  • explain the four components of the marketing mix;
  • describe the components of an implementation plan; and
  • compile a strategic marketing plan.

 

Business Law and Administrative Practice

‘The law’

  • Discuss the sources of South African law;
  • understand the structure of South African law;
  • differentiate public from private law;
  • discuss the officers of the Magistrates and the High Courts and their functions;
  • discuss the doctrine of stare decisis and the jurisdictions of the various courts of law;
  • distinguish between ratio decidendi and obiter dictum as per court judgements; and
  • distinguish between appeal and review proceedings.

The law of contract

  • Define a contract;
  • define the concept of ‘obligation’;
  • list the essentials for a valid contract;
  • differentiate between the concepts of a valid, void and voidable contract with reference to practical examples;
  • define a ‘term’ and a ‘condition’ in a contract with examples of each;
  • differentiate between express and implied terms;
  • distinguish between  different  terms  in  contracts,  namely  essentialia,  naturalia  and

incidentalia using practical examples;

  • define the term ‘iusta causa’;
  • distinguish statements from true offers;
  • discuss the rules for valid offer and valid acceptance;
  • discuss the ways in which offers terminate;
  • discuss when and where contracts by post, telephone and electronic communication

are concluded with application of various recognised legal theories, i.e. the expedition, communication (information) and reception theories;

  • discuss the requirements for validity for special terms in contracts (ticket cases);
  • define a ‘condition’ in a contract;

 

  • differentiate between suspensive and resolutive conditions using practical examples to illustrate your answer;
  • conclude whether  a  contract  in  a  case  study  contains  a  resolutive  or  a  suspensive condition;
  • discuss the requirements which must be met and the effect of mistake, misrepresentation, undue influence and duress;
  • differentiate between innocent, negligent and fraudulent misrepresentation;
  • understand when misrepresentation will render a contract voidable;
  • distinguish between unilateral, common and mutual mistakes;
  • understand when mistake will render a contract void;
  • write short notes on the rectification of contracts;
  • distinguish between majority and minority;
  • differentiate between the contractual capacity of minors under the age of seven years, those over the age of seven years but under the age of 18 years and finally those over the age of 18 years;
  • evaluate the consequences of a contract entered into without the necessary assistance and where a minor has fraudulently misrepresented him/herself;
  • define the concepts of emancipation and ratification with reference to practical examples;
  • determine whether a contract is legally possible;
  • differentiate between contracts against the common law and contracts against statute and identify examples of such contracts that can be considered as unlawful;
  • define the concepts of ex turpi causa and par delictum;
  • discuss the  concept  restraint  of  trade  with  reference  to  examples  and whether  such provision in a contract would be lawful and constitutional under South African law;
  • differentiate between a contract that is void ab initio and supervening impossibility; and
  • discuss which  contracts  have  formalities  which  must  be  adhered  to  before  they  are considered valid.

Breach of contract

 

  • Discuss and identify the five forms of breach of contract and the requirements to be met for each form to occur, and gather from a case study which type of breach has occurred in the specific case;
  • define the legal term ‘mora’;
  • discuss and identify default by the debtor (mora debitoris) as a form of breach and the requirements that must be met to prove that such breach has occurred;
  • define the terms mora ex re and mora ex persona;
  • discuss and identify default by the creditor (mora creditoris) as a form of breach and the requirements that must be met to prove that such breach has occurred;
  •   discuss and identify repudiation (also known as anticipatory breach) as a form of breach and the requirements that must be met to prove that such breach has occurred;
  •   discuss and identify prevention of performance as a form of breach and the requirements that must be met to prove that such breach has occurred; and
  •     discuss and identify positive mal-performance (also known as defective mal-performance) as a form of breach and the requirements that must be met to prove that such breach has occurred.

Remedies for breach of contract

 

  • List and explain the remedies available to an innocent party to a contract when breach has occurred; and
  • identify and discuss which remedy is most appropriate when a breach of contract has occurred in a specific case study.

 

 

Termination of contracts

  • Differentiate between the terms ‘breach’ and ‘termination’ of contracts;
  • list and discuss the different manners in which a contract may be terminated;
  • define cession and discuss the consequences of cession;
  • discuss delegation and assignment;
  • define set-off and discuss the requirements to be proven for two debts to be set off against each other;
  • define prescription and list the various prescription periods relevant under South African law; and
  • differentiate between ‘interruption’ and ‘delay’ of prescription.

The law of delict

  • Define the term ‘delict’;
  • list and discuss the elements of a delict;
  • discuss the boni mores test;
  • discuss the ‘reasonable man’ test;
  • discuss the grounds for justification for wrongful acts with examples;
  • differentiate between  the  types  of  damages  that  can  be  claimed  with  reference  to examples;
  • discuss what remedies exist for claiming damages caused by delictual acts;
  • define defamation;
  • discuss the types of defamation with examples; and
  • discuss the various grounds of justification for defamation.

Contract of sale

  • Define a contract of sale;
  • discuss the essentials of a valid contract of sale;
  • discuss the rights and duties of the buyer and seller;
  • define the term ‘risk’;
  • discuss when risk passes in a contract of sale;
  • discuss the exceptions to the ‘passing of risk’ rule;
  • discuss when ownership passes in the contract of sale;
  • differentiate between transfer of ownership of movables and immovables;
  • discuss whether risk and ownership has passed in a given case study;
  • identify a latent defect and what requirements must be met for one to exist;
  • discuss the remedies available to the buyer after delivery when a latent defect exists; and

 

  • discuss the buyer’s tacit warranty against eviction and tacit warranty against latent defects and the exceptions to these warranties and when these exceptions arise.

Credit agreements

  • List the major provisions of the National Credit Act (NCA);
  • discuss the main objectives of the National Credit Act;
  • discuss who the NCA applies to and who it does not apply to;
  • distinguish, with examples, between the different types of credit agreements;
  • name the three classifications of credit agreements;
  • list the unlawful provisions of the credit agreements;
  • list the unlawful credit agreements;
  • discuss the consequences of unlawful provisions in credit agreements and unlawful credit agreements;
  • discuss the various financial charges found in credit agreements;
  • discuss the general consumer rights;
  • define reckless lending and the consequences of reckless lending;
  • discuss debt review and debt rearrangement; and
  • discuss the role of the National Credit regulator, the National Consumer Tribunal, the Magistrate’s Courts, the Ombudsmans, and the Equality Court in the resolution of disputes regarding credit agreements.

Contract of lease

  • Define a contract of lease;
  • discuss the essentials of a valid contract of lease;
  • discuss the rights and duties of the landlord and tenant;
  • discuss the concept ‘Huur gaat voor koop’;
  • discuss the landlord’s tacit hypothec in detail;
  • differentiate the terms subletting, cession and assignment; and
  • mention the ways in which leases terminate.

Contract of agency

  • Discuss the ways in which agency is created;
  • discuss the rights and duties of the principal and agent;
  • define the terms estoppel, ratification and negotorium gestio;
  • determine from a given case study whether an agent had authority to act on a principal’s behalf;
  • discuss the circumstances in which an agent can be held personally liable;
  • discuss the doctrine of the undisclosed principal; and
  • mention the ways in which agency is terminated.

Contract of partnership

  • Define a partnership;
  • discuss the legal nature of a partnership;

 

  • discuss the rights and duties of partners;
  • discuss when a third party may hold a partnership liable; and
  • mention the ways in which a partnership may be terminated (dissolved).

Business entities

 

  • Discuss the nature and characteristics of a sole proprietorship;
  • discuss the  concept  ‘separate  legal  personality’  of  a  company  and  mention  the consequences of such separateness;
  • discuss the documents and their contents that need to be lodged with the Commission for a company to be registered;
  •    differentiate between the various types of profit and non-profit companies by contrasting the names, number of members, number of directors and accounting and financial reporting requirements of each;
  • discuss the validity of pre-incorporation contracts in companies;
  • discuss the appointment, removal and disqualification of directors;
  • discuss the common law and statutory duties of directors;
  • mention some of the circumstances in which directors can be personally liable to the company and other persons;
  • mention the  different  types  of  meetings  that  a  company  can hold  and  mention  their respective notice, quorum and voting requirements;
  • discuss the statutory protection for shareholders in terms of Sections 162, 163, 164 and 165 of the Act;
  • list some of the reporting and auditing requirements of public companies;
  • discuss the ways in which a solvent and an insolvent company can be wound up and the grounds and formalities of each way;
  • discuss the characteristics of a CC;
  • mention the constitutive documents that need to be lodged when registering a CC;
  • discuss which person may become members of a CC and which may not;
  • mention some of the internal management rules in a CC with regard to decision-making;
  • discuss the circumstances in which a member of a CC can be held personally liable for the debts of the CC;
  • discuss the ways in which a solvent as well as an insolvent CC can be wound up;
  • define a ‘trust’;
  • distinguish the different types of trusts;
  • list the requirements needed to establish a valid trust;
  • discuss the advantages of forming a trust;
  • mention the ways in which a trust will terminate;
  • define a ‘franchise agreement’;
  • discuss the obligations of the franchisor and the franchisee; and
  • mention the ways in which a franchise will terminate.

Contract of insurance

  • Discuss the essentials of a valid contract of insurance;
  • discuss the difference between indemnity and non-indemnity insurance;
  • define an insurable interest;
  • discuss the concept of risk and examples of risk;

 

  • discuss the  insured’s  duty  to  act  in  good  faith  as  it  pertains  to  non-disclosures and misrepresentations;
  • discuss the rights and duties of the insurer and the insured;
  • define the terms average clause, over and under-insurance; and
  • discuss the doctrine of subrogation.

 

 

Contract of suretyship

  • Define a contract of surety;
  • discuss the liability of a surety;
  • discuss the defences which are available to a surety;
  • discuss the surety’s right of recourse against the principal debtor; and
  • discuss the ways in which a surety contract can be terminated.

Negotiable instruments

  • Define a negotiable instrument;
  • define a cheque;
  • define a bill of exchange;
  • define a promissory note;
  • discuss the essential elements or characteristics of a negotiable instrument;
  • discuss the parties to a cheque;
  • differentiate between an order cheque and a bearer cheque;
  • differentiate between a holder and a holder in due course;
  • discuss the rights and duties of a holder;
  • define the terms ‘endorsement’ and ‘crossing’;
  • differentiate between a general crossing and a special crossing;
  • differentiate between a cheque marked not transferable and one marked not negotiable and the legal consequences of each;
  • discuss the effect of Section 22, 58, 79, 80 and 81 of the Bills of Exchange Act 34 of 1964.

 

Contract of employment

  • Define a contract of employment;
  • discuss the essentials of a valid employment contract;
  • discuss the rights and duties of an employer and employee;
  • discuss the doctrine of vicarious liability;
  • discuss ways in which contracts of employment terminate;
  • differentiate between an employee and an independent contractor;
  • define a dismissal under the Labour Relations Act;
  • define an automatically unfair dismissal under the LRA;
  • discuss substantive and procedural fairness for dismissal based on misconduct, incapacity and operational requirements;
  • differentiate between conciliation and arbitration;
  • define a strike and a lock-out;
  • mention the validity and legality requirements of a protected strike;
  • differentiate between the consequences of a protected vs. an unprotected strike;

 

  • define the terms ‘collective bargaining’ and ‘freedom of association’;
  • briefly discuss the provisions of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 1997 as amended;
  • discuss the organisational rights of trade unions; and
  • define a workplace forum and discuss its functions.

 

 

 

Intellectual property and competition law

  • Define intellectual property;
  • discuss the Copyright Act of 1978 as amended with regard to its purpose and the nature of its protection;
  • define the term ‘copyright’;
  • discuss the requirements for the subsistence of a copyright;
  • mention the various items that copyright can be registered in respect of;
  • differentiate between direct and indirect copyright infringement;
  • mention some of the legal remedies available for copyright infringement;
  • discuss the duration of a copyright;
  • define the term ‘trademark’;
  • discuss the requirements for the subsistence of a trademark;
  • mention what things cannot be trade-marked;
  • discuss infringement of a trademark with reference to examples;
  • discuss the remedies for trademark infringement;
  • mention the duration of a trademark;
  • define the term ‘patent’;
  • cite examples of what is patentable;
  • discuss the requirements for registration of a patent and what steps will be followed to achieve such registration;
  • discuss what constitutes patent infringement;
  • discuss the remedies for patent infringement;
  • mention the duration of a patent;
  • define the term ‘industrial design’
  • discuss the  various  types  of  industrial  designs,  the  requirements  necessary  for  their registration and their duration;
  • define ‘competition law’;
  • distinguish between public and private competition law;
  • discuss the forms of direct and indirect unlawful competition under the common law with reference to examples;
  • discuss the aims of the Competition Act 1998; and
  • discuss the role and functions of the Competition Tribunal and the Advertising Authority.

 

Environmental law and revision

  • Discuss some of the national and international legislation which has been established to protect our natural environment;
  • discuss the protection of the right to environmental protection under the Constitution; and
  • discuss the role of the provincial and national government in environmental protection.

 

 

 

Business and Office Administration 2

Office equipment and ergonomics

  • Outline the features of the different kinds of office equipment;
  • work with office equipment;
  • choose the correct office equipment to suit your needs;
  • gauge whether renting or buying is a better bet;
  • control the movement of different items of inventory;
  • implement preventative maintenance strategies;
  • implement predictive maintenance strategies; and
  • implement safety measures with respect to office equipment and machinery.

Filing systems and records management

  • Classify paper-based documentation according to established procedures;
  • store information in the correct location and sequence and explain the effect of misfiled documentation on an organisation;
  • store documents in a manner that ensures safety, security and accessibility;
  • classify and cross-reference information accurately;
  • describe methods of classification and cross-referencing;
  • archive and locate documents in accordance with organisational procedures;
  • discuss the implications for productivity when an item cannot be located;
  • create, label and file electronic documents in accordance with organisational requirements;
  • sort, classify and store materials in a safe and secure manner;
  • retrieve information from an existing storage system and distribute to the correct person or location; and
  • retrieve, transfer and dispose of files.

Reception duties

  • Acknowledged and greet visitors according to organisational requirements;
  • established rapport with visitors;
  • maintain a professional appearance and behaviour at all times;
  • consult visitors in a professional manner and establish the reason for their visit;
  • attend to requests for information promptly;
  • estimate the time or waiting period and convey this information to the client;
  • record the  receipt  and  dispatch  of  documents  and  deliveries  in  accordance  with organisational requirements;
  • notify relevant parties of visitors’ arrival;
  • give clear directions to visitors to relevant areas in the workplace;
  • explain and apply security procedures;.
  • list and explain housekeeping according to organisational requirements;
  • implement housekeeping standards within agreed timeframes;

 

  • ensure that  reception  services  are  not  disrupted  while  housekeeping  activities  are performed;
  • coordinate corporate image displays to create a presentable reception area;
  • keep the display area neat, tidy and clean at all times;
  • constantly maintain stocks of company brochures and magazines for distribution;
  • maintain a well-organised diary with appointments;
  • outline the most important rules of office etiquette; and
  • outline the steps to be taken during an armed robbery or another emergency situation.

Dealing with customer queries

  • Answer queries in a defined range of established contexts clearly, accurately, objectively and confidently;
  • supply requested information promptly or refuse requests politely with reasons given for declining requests;
  • request and record details of customers by following established and familiar procedures (limited to logbooks and/or computerised spreadsheets);
  • note the details of the enquiry and reflect back to the caller to check for accuracy;
  • conclude calls according to established and familiar procedures;
  • follow established procedures to explain delays or non-availability of assistance;
  • identify and describe enquiries of unpredictable nature that should be referred to experi- enced staff;
  • describe and apply procedures for dealing with unusual or unfamiliar problems, complaints and queries;
  • give an explanation of how to reach agreement with the customer on follow-up actions; and
  • obtain information and documentation required for customer contacts and forward them to the correct department or person concerned.

Travel and events management

  • Identify the principal features of making effective travel arrangements;
  • prepare an itinerary for a trip;
  • give advice on booking travel and hotel accommodation;
  • suggest a selection of useful travel reference sources which a secretary might consult;
  • list the sort of arrangements entailed in organising formal and informal meetings;
  • appreciate the factors which need to be taken into account in arranging a business lunch or event;
  • suggest the factors which would contribute to a successful social event;
  • identify the principal features in organising a business event;
  • explain the kind of checks which would be built into arrangements to ensure effectiveness; and
  • identify and source available external support.

How to manage yourself in the workplace

  • Communicate effectively in the workplace;
  • show appropriate interpersonal skills;
  • show appropriate life management skills;

 

  • show appropriate decision-making skills;
  • show customer service skills;
  • explain the importance of time management;
  • identify and apply techniques for effective time management;
  • prioritise tasks;
  • design and implement a work plan;
  • plan team tasks and responsibilities;
  • negotiate and meet deadlines;
  • use manual and electronic calendar and reminder systems; and
  • coordinate appointments effectively and efficiently.

Banking, cash control and the business information manual

  • Discuss the necessity of banking and banking accounts with examples of consequences of not having them;
  • explain the skills necessary to interpret bank statements and operate banking accounts with examples;
  • relate financial concepts and principles to the business environment; and
  • prepare a business information manual (business plan).

 

Human Resources Management and Labour Relations

An introduction to human resource management

  • Understand the term or concept of human resource management; and
  • provide an overview of the human resources function within the organisation.

Strategising, structuring and planning

  • Demonstrate a sound appreciation of organisational and functional relationships in an or- ganisation;
  • describe various organisational structures;
  • discuss their respective merits and demerits;
  • explain the human resource planning process; and
  • describe job analysis and job design processes and techniques.

 

Recruiting potential employees

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the meaning of recruitment;
  • differentiate between factors that influence recruitment;
  • explain the disadvantages and advantages of staffing job vacancies with employees from within the organisation;
  • weigh up external and internal sources of recruitment against each other;
  • identify the principal external recruitment sources and explain when these sources are likely to be utilised;
  • formulate a recruitment policy in practical terms;
  • explain in a practical manner how you would evaluate a recruitment programme;

 

  • explain why affirmative action and employment equity need to be integrated into HR practices;
  • demonstrate an understanding of succession planning and how it ensures organisational success; and
  • explain how a company values human capital through a retention strategy.

Selection and appointment of an employee

  • Explain the internal and external factors that influence the selection decisions;
  • sequentially describe the various steps in the selection process;
  • conduct a structured employment interview;
  • make decisions as to which types of employment tests should be used in specific selection situations;
  • discuss the responsibility for making the final selection decision; and
  • practically evaluate the selection process.

 

Placement and the induction or orientation process

  • Distinguish between the concepts of induction, socialisation and orientation;
  • explain what is meant by the ‘psychological contract’;
  • list some of the characteristics of an effective orientation program;
  • explain the objectives and benefits of induction;
  • demonstrate the various components of an induction program;
  • describe the stages of induction;
  • plan, design and evaluate an induction program; and
  • briefly describe the influence of quality assurance in induction and staffing decisions.

Managing performance of employees

  • Define performance management;
  • list the objectives of performance management;
  • motivate the usefulness of performance evaluation;
  • make decisions as to who should perform evaluation;
  • compare and apply relative and absolute performance evaluation techniques;
  • explain common rater errors;
  • conduct an effective feedback interview;
  • explain the importance of the feedback process in performance evaluation; and
  • consider the influence of legislation on performance management systems.

Compensation management

  • Discuss the objectives of a compensation system;
  • assess the factors that influence the provision of a compensation system;
  • discuss compensation policy;
  • outline the components of a compensation system;
  • differentiate between the various methods of job evaluation; and
  • distinguish between direct and indirect rewards.

 

Health and safety in an organisation

 

  • Describe what is meant by employee wellness;
  • give a brief overview of the statutory regulations governing occupational health and safety in South Africa;
  • explain the factors to incorporate in strategies, policies and action plans;
  • differentiate between the various forms of health;
  • discuss the issue of work-related stress;
  • explain ways to prevent accidents;
  • explain the challenges facing South African organisations as a result of the HIV/Aids threat; and
  • explain the functioning of the National Occupational Safety Association of South Africa (NOSA).

 

Career management

  • Explain the protean career concept;
  • explain the theories of Super, Holland and Jung;
  • discuss self-and work-related factors of the early, mid- and late life career;
  • define career anchors and describe the various types;
  • describe the different career patterns;
  • explain issues concerning working couples and suggest how they can find a balance be- tween work and family life;
  • describe career plateauing and ways to assist the plateaued worker;
  • explain career support by an organisation;
  • describe ethical principles regarding organisational career management support;
  • explain the changes in organisations with regard to structure and workforce;
  • explain the implications of the changing organisations for careers; and
  • explain the changing nature of careers and work arrangements.

Human resource development

  • Define and distinguish between the concepts of training, education, development and outcomes-based education and training;
  • list the reasons for human resource development management in organisations;
  • illustrate a training function using a diagram;
  • define human resource development;
  • explain the characteristics of an adult learner;
  • explain the rationale of the Skills Development Act and the Skills Development Levies Act;
  • indicate the implications of the provisions of the Skill Development Act and the Skills Development Levies Act for an organisation’s strategic human resource planning;
  • define the aim and scope of the National Qualifications Framework;
  • describe the National Training Strategy of South Africa;
  • understand outcomes-based training and assessment;
  • describe the  assessment  of  training  needs  through  organisational  task  and  person analysis;
  • indicate the importance of job analysis when determining training needs; and

 

  • explain the evaluation of training and development programmes.

 

Organisational behaviour (OB)

  • Define organisational behaviour (OB);
  • describe why managers require a knowledge of OB;
  • identify and explain the effect of key biographical characteristics on work behaviour;
  • explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality;
  • identify the key traits in the Big Five Personality Model;
  • explain how perceptions affects the decision-making process;
  • explain how two people can see the same thing and interpret it differently;
  • differentiate between formal and informal groups;
  • explain how role requirements change in different situations;
  • describe how norms exert influence on an individual’s behaviour;
  • list the strengths and weaknesses of group decision-making;
  • identify common barriers to effective communication;
  • describe the forces that act as stimulants for change;
  • contrast first-order and second-order change;
  • summarise sources of individual and organisational resistance to change; and
  • contrast the three ethical decision criteria.

Employment relations

  • Write an essay that outlines the essentials of labour relations;
  • describe the nature, functioning and role of trade unions in South Africa;
  • discuss the meaning and fundamental role that freedom of association and protection against victimisation play in our system of industrial relations;
  • list and explain the organisational rights granted to trade unions in terms of the LRA;
  • develop un understanding of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act;
  • explain who is covered by the Basic Conditions of Employment Act;
  • explain what issues the BCOEA covers;
  • determine amounts due in terms of the BCOEA;
  • demonstrate an  understanding  of  the  purpose  and  primary  objects,  application  and interpretation of the Labour Relations Act;
  • demonstrate and apply an understanding of the provisions of strikes and lock-outs;
  • describe the definitions of strikes, lock-outs and picketing; and
  • identify and solve problems related to the interpretation of related labour legislation and its impact on all stakeholders.

Structures created by the LRA for collective bargaining and dispute resolution

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the LRA;
  • describe the institutional framework of the LRA;
  • explain the purpose, powers and roles of these institutions with examples;
  • facilitate an understanding of the different structures which constitute the system and how these structures can be used in practice;
  • use the present legislation regulating the employment relationship in practice; and

 

  • identify the appropriate structures to be used for a particular business’s needs.

 

 

 

Economics

An introduction to economics

  • Define economics;
  • distinguish between microeconomics and macroeconomics;
  • explain how  major  economic  events  such  as  a  hike  in  interest  rates,  inflation  and unemployment affects the ‘man on the street’;
  • explain the role of households, businesses, government, the foreign sector and financial institutions in the economy;
  • demonstrate the intricacies of demand and supply;
  • illustrate and explain the laws of demand and supply as well as resultant equilibrium;
  • explain how the theory of demand and supply can be used to determine what price to charge for a product;
  • explain the determinants of demand and supply, and demonstrate how such determinants can affect the equilibrium point;
  • explain the concept ‘price elasticity’;
  • discuss the premises of marginal utility;
  • explain what is meant by inflation, what causes inflation and what can be done to control it; and
  • explain why inflation is a problem.

Economic systems in perspective

  • Explain the importance of economic efficiency;
  • explain the significance of a production possibilities frontier;
  • explain the economic system and its components;
  • discuss efficiency and value with regard to the allocation of resources and the resulting goods and services produced from those resources;
  • explain the main economic systems: traditional, command, market and mixed; and
  • discuss the meaning of a free market economy and a mixed and socialistic economy.

Formulating an economic framework

  • Describe in a simple form the overall concept of measuring the economic activities;
  • describe the objectives of macroeconomics;
  • identify the instruments used to measure economic activities;
  • identify the limitations and inaccuracies in measuring GDP;
  • explain what CPI is and how it is measured; and
  • explain the role that gold plays in the South African economy as well as in the global economic system.

The money market and monetary economics

 

  • Explain the functions of money;
  • explain how banks came about;
  • calculate different levels of money supply in the economy;
  • explain the functions of the Central Bank;
  • outline the instruments used for monetary control;
  • describe how interest rates are determined in the money market;
  • list the factors that increase or decrease money supply;
  • explain the relationship between demand and supply in the money market;
  • define inflation and explain how it is measured;
  • differentiate between cost-push and demand-pull inflation; and
  • discuss the factors that influence exchange rates and the value of a local currency.

International trade and finance

  • Provide an overview of international economics;
  • explain the difference between comparative and absolute advantage;
  • outline the basic premises of exchange rates and explain how they are calculated;
  • explain arbitrage;
  • demonstrate demand and supply of currencies;
  • discuss the exchange rate policy implemented in South Africa;
  • demonstrate how free trade policy is exercised in South Africa and the rest of the world;
  • discuss the prevalence of trade finance in international trade; and
  • explain how letters of credit work and are used in international finance.

Labour economics

  • Define and measure the performance of the South African economy;
  • identify the macroeconomic objectives of the South African economy;
  • give the available definitions of labour;
  • describe the South African labour market;
  • identify the characteristics of a labour market;
  • define the supply of labour;
  • define the demand for labour;
  • discuss the factors that could influence the demand for labour;
  • define labour mobility;
  • define migrant labour;
  • describe the ‘brain drain’ from South Africa;
  • discuss the factors that influence wages;
  • discuss theoretical equilibrium in the labour market;
  • define market flexibility;
  • define active labour market policy;
  • distinguish between unemployment and underemployment;
  • define and describe human capital and human capital investment;
  • define the informal sector;
  • explain employment in the informal sector; and
  • discuss the importance of the informal sector.

 

Business and Office Administration 3

Office supplies

  • Monitor office supplies levels by:
  • Identifying and recording office supply levels
  • Ascertaining and comparing office supply levels to required levels
  • Checking records for compliance with organisational requirements
  • Taking remedial action to rectify office supply levels
  • Maintain office supplies processed and procedures by:
  • Monitoring and evaluating office supply processes and procedures
  • Identifying and highlighting out-of-line situations
  • Taking remedial action to bring office supply processes and procedures back in line
  • Identifying areas for improvement
  • Monitor and control the distribution of office supplies by:
  • Identifying, setting and communicating distribution procedures
  • Receiving and recording office supply requests
  • Distributing office supplies within agreed timeframes
  • Identifying and highlighting areas of non-conformance
  • Taking remedial action to rectify office supply distribution processes and procedures

Handling petty cash and the principles of insurance

  • Explain the purpose of and need for a proper petty cash system;
  • disburse money for petty cash transactions;
  • record petty cash transactions;
  • restore the imprest amount;
  • explain and implement petty cash control procedures; and
  • understand the basic principles of insurance.

Internal control concepts

 

  • Outline, demonstrate and discuss the basic premises of internal control.

 

The key principles of customer service

  • Understand the concepts of customer service in an historical context;
  • define customer service;
  • recognise the differences between poor, mediocre and excellent service;
  • describe examples of poor service;
  • recognise and explain the possible consequences of offering poor service;
  • identify and describe different types of customers;
  • explain the importance of customers to a business;
  • explain the value of customers to the economy as a whole;
  • differentiate between internal customers and external customers;
  • recognise that customers have their own unique characteristics and needs;
  • discuss the different products and services organisations can offer; and

 

  • understand the  types  of  organisations  that  exist  and  their  different  structures  and processes.

Factors affecting customer service

  • Recognise the wide range of factors that influence the quality of customer service offered by organisations;
  • identify the need for organisations to take these factors into consideration when planning their products, services and customer service;
  • understand how customer service can provide a competitive advantage for organisations;
  • explain the role that external customers, competitors, government legislation, regulations and codes of practice play in offering quality service;
  • understand how  organisations  plan  their  customer  service  approach  through  the development of internal policies and procedures;
  • explain how organisations monitor and evaluate the quality of their customer service;
  • demonstrate that you understand the need for organisations to monitor and evaluate customer service; and
  • recommend how individuals and organisations can improve the quality of customer service they offer.

Human resource development and the Basic Conditions of Employment Act

  • Understand the importance of human resource development within an organisation;
  • demonstrate an understanding of a skills audit;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act;
  • explain who is protected and covered by the Basic Conditions of Employment Act;
  • discuss the regulation of working time;
  • differentiate between the different types of leave; and
  • explain the process that should be followed on termination of employment.

Business organisations

 

  • Identify and describe the types of organisations that exist in South Africa.

Preparing yourself for the workplace

 

  • Prepare yourself for the world of work;
  • fill out a job application;
  • prepare a CV; and
  • prepare for an interview.

 

Management

What is management?

  • Explain the nature and definition of management;
  • distinguish between the different levels of management;

 

  • demonstrate an understanding of the generic tasks of managers; and
  • outline the development of management theory through the years.

Management and the environment

  • Identify the scope of management in different types of organisations;
  • discuss the management of businesses according to their size;
  • explain the role of managers in modern organisations;
  • distinguish between the different management disciplines;
  • demonstrate an  understanding  of  the  influence  of  the  business  environment  on management practices;
  • describe the common misconceptions about management; and
  • recognise the role of the CEO in an organisation.

Planning

  • List the reasons for planning in an organisation;
  • identify different planning timeframes;
  • name the barriers to planning formulation;
  • outline the planning process;
  • analyse the different tools available for planning purposes;
  • set well-formulated goals for an organisation; and
  • distinguish between the different types of plans an organisation could implement.

Decision-making

  • Discuss the importance of decision-making in an organisation;
  • explain the difference between problem-defining and problem-solving;
  • outline the steps in the decision-making process;
  • identify the different types of managerial decisions;
  • distinguish between the different conditions under which decisions can be taken;
  • describe how decisions are taken in groups;
  • compare the formal decision techniques; and
  • contrast the decision-making tools at the disposal of a manager.

Information management

  • Define information management;
  • explain the need for information management;
  • name the characteristics of a useful information management system;
  • outline the steps in developing an information management system;
  • distinguish between the types of information systems;
  • identify the link between management levels and information systems;
  • analyse a basic information system model;
  • demonstrate an understanding of data integration;
  • name the key issues regarding information management and data integration; and
  • list the implications of information management and data integration.

 

Organisational development

  • Define organisation development;
  • discuss the reasons for change in an organisation;
  • analyse a basic change model;
  • identify the key challenges relating to change in an organisation;
  • demonstrate an understanding of corporate culture;
  • explain how to handle resistance to change;
  • understand the role of employee empowerment when managing change;
  • describe the development of teams;
  • recognise how to build efficient organisations; and
  • identify the future challenges organisations face.

Communication

  • Outline the communication process;
  • name the barriers to communication;
  • demonstrate an understanding of communication in an organisation;
  • examine the process of negotiation;
  • understand how to manage conflict in an organisation; and
  • identify the impact that technology has had on communication.

Organising

  • Compare the different organisational structures;
  • list the principles of organisation;
  • outline the delegation process;
  • distinguish between job design, job enrichment and job characteristics; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of the principle of ‘authority’ in an organisation.

 

Leadership

  • Define the term ‘leadership’;
  • contrast the different leadership theories;
  • identify contemporary leadership perspectives;
  • explain the link between leadership and organisation-political behaviour;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the needs of the individual in an organisation; and
  • describe how to handle groups and teams.

Motivation

  • Analyse the motivation process;
  • define the term ‘motivation’;
  • compare the different motivation theories;
  • recognise the relationship between money and motivation; and
  • discuss where motivation originates from.

 

Control

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the nature and importance of control in an organisation;
  • outline the control process;
  • describe which areas in a business controls should focus;
  • distinguish between the different levels of control; and
  • list the characteristics of an effective control system.

Contemporary business management issues

  • Identify and discuss issues of significance which affect the majority of organisations in South Africa in the present and foreseeable future, including:
  • Ethics and corruption
  • Governance
  • Corporate social responsibility
  • Globalisation
  • Changes in the workforce
  • Changing customer demands
  • Technology
  • Cultural diversity
  • Supply chain impacts

Business Management Programme

 

Refer to the curriculum statements under the Accounting Programme for the following subjects:

  • Business Literacy
  • Bookkeeping to trial balance
  • Financial statements
  • Financial reporting and regulatory frameworks

 

Refer to the curriculum statements under the Office Administration Programme for the following subjects:

  • Marketing management and public relations
  • Human resources management and labour relations

 

Business management 1

What is management?

 

  • Explain the nature and definition of management;
  • distinguish between the different levels of management;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the generic tasks of managers; and
  • outline the development of management theory through the years.

 

 

Management and the environment

 

  • Identify the scope of management in different types of organisations;
  • discuss the management of businesses according to their size;
  • explain the role of managers in modern organisations;
  • distinguish between the different management disciplines;
  • demonstrate an  understanding  of  the  influence  of  the  business  environment  on management practices;
  • describe the common misconceptions about management; and
  • recognise the role of the CEO in an organisation.

 

Financial planning and control

 

  • Prepare a business plan suitable for submission to a financial institution;
  • monitor actual performance of an organisa-tion against a budget;
  • decide on the purchase of fixed assets based on the highest financial return;
  • understand the importance of financial reporting.

 

Costing and pricing

 

  • Calculate the total production, administration, selling and distribution costs of a product;
  • distinguish between fixed, semi-fixed, semi- variable and variable costs;
  • carry out a simple break-even analysis;
  • calculate a selling price by using the mark-up or the margin;
  • apply the concepts of chargeable hours and total hours worked.

 

Managing working capital

 

  • Calculate the level of working capital in a business;
  • identify and explain the dangers of overtrading;
  • understand the effects on cash flow of external and internal events and actions;
  • prepare a debtors collection schedule as well as a creditors settlement schedule;
  • calculate an effective interest rate; and
  • calculate an approximate APR.

 

Working with SARS

 

  • Explain what Value Added Tax (VAT) is, and how the system works;
  • explain the VAT registration requirements and VAT periods;
  • compare the two bases according to which vendors may be registered for VAT;
  • perform basic VAT calculations;
  • calculate gross earnings for an employee, including allowances as well as company car and medical aid fringe benefits;
  • calculate ‘remuneration’ and ‘balance of remuneration’ as defined by SARS;
  • calculate ‘PAYE remuneration’, ‘SDL remuneration’ and ‘UIF remuneration’ as defined by SARS;

 

  • complete a monthly EMP201 return reflecting the correct calculation and payment of PAYE, SDL and UIF to SARS;
  • complete the annual EMP501 reconciliation for SARS.

 

 

 

 

Introduction to computing

 

  • Discuss the history of computers briefly;
  • learn what a PC is and how it basically works;
  • identify the main components of PC Hardware;
  • understand why upgrading a PC is important;
  • identify various PC Software applications;
  • differentiate between hardware and software;
  • understand the interaction between Hardware and Software using the IPOS cycle;
  • understand what networks are used for;
  • identify the basic components of networks; and
  • explain the advantages and disadvantages of using computers.

 

The windows operating system

 

  • Understand where the windows concept comes from;
  • learn how to use basic tools in Windows;
  • learn how to Log On to your PC;
  • identify the desktop and the taskbar;
  • identify objects in Windows;
  • use the recycle bin;
  • identify tooltips;
  • identify common Window components;
  • learn how to control multiple opened Windows;
  • learn how to start a programme;
  • use the help, support and search tools;
  • learn how to adjust PC hardware and PC software properties;
  • learn how to change basic mouse properties;
  • view the display properties;
  • understand user accounts;
  • add and remove programmes;
  • learn what drivers are;
  • use Windows Explorer to browse and create folders;
  • open and navigate through the Windows Explorer structure;
  • learn how to work with files and folders in Windows Explorer;
  • create and save a document in Windows; and
  • know how to launch a programme.

 

Working with internet and email

 

  • Learn what e-mail is;

 

  • distinguish the difference between Internet e-mail and network e-mail;
  • identify the various Outlook components;
  • compose messages in Outlook;
  • learn how to format messages;
  • learn how to open a message;
  • learn how to add an attachment to e-mail;
  • understand why and how to create e-mail folders;
  • learn how to move messages to a folder;
  • understand how contacts work in Outlook;
  • learn how to add and delete contacts in the address book;
  • use the help function in Outlook;
  • working with electronic calendars;
  • schedule appointments and meetings in an electronic diary;
  • create and manage contact in an electronic diary;
  • understand Internet Basics;
  • distinguish between the Intranet and the extranet;
  • understand what viruses are;
  • identify a web browser;
  • understand what the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is;
  • identify the Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 Interface;
  • use web-based tools;
  • download programs and files from the web;
  • understand the workings of a search engine; and
  • search the web and getting usable information.

 

 

Office and Legal Practice

 

The role and function of the administrative assistant

 

  • Demonstrate an  understanding  of  the  role  and  the  function  of  a  secretary  in  an organisation;
  • indicate the traditional technical skills required by secretaries;
  • identify additional skills which are likely required;
  • advise a junior employee on performance;
  • appreciate the importance of good telephone etiquette;
  • demonstrate competence as a secretary in an organisation;
  • demonstrate competence in handling routine business correspondence;
  • draft memoranda, minutes and reports; and
  • demonstrate skills and ability to organise.

 

Reception and diary management

 

  • Acknowledge and greet visitors according to organisational requirements;
  • establish rapport with visitors;
  • maintain a professional appearance and behaviour at all times;
  • consult visitors in a professional manner and establish the reason for their visit;
  • attend to requests for information promptly;

 

  • estimate the time or waiting period and convey this information to the client;
  • record the  receipt  and  dispatch  of  documents  and  deliveries  in  accordance  with organisational requirements;
  • notify relevant parties of visitors’ arrival;
  • give clear directions to visitors to relevant areas in the workplace;
  • explain and apply security procedures;
  • list and explain housekeeping according to organisational requirements;
  • implement housekeeping standards within agreed time frames;
  • ensure that  reception  services  are  not  disrupted  while  housekeeping  activities  are performed;
  • coordinate corporate image displays to create a presentable reception area;
  • keep the display area neat, tidy and clean at all times;
  • constantly maintain stocks of company brochures and magazines for distribution;
  • maintain a well-organised diary with appointments;
  • outline the most important rules of office etiquette; and
  • outline the steps to be taken during an armed robbery or another emergency situation.

 

Office equipment and ergonomics

 

  • Outline the features of the different kinds of office equipment;
  • work with office equipment;
  • choose the correct office equipment to suit your needs;
  • gauge whether renting or buying is a better bet;
  • control the movement of different items of inventory;
  • implement preventative maintenance strategies;
  • implement predictive maintenance strategies; and
  • implement safety measures with respect to office equipment and machinery.

 

Office supplies

 

  • Monitor office supplies levels by
  • Identifying and recording office supplies levels
  • Ascertaining and comparing office supply levels to required levels
  • Checking records for compliance with organisational requirements.
  • Taking remedial action to rectify office supply levels.
  • Maintain office supplies processes and procedures
  • Monitoring and evaluating office supply processes and procedures
  • Identifying and highlighting out-of-line situations
  • Taking remedial action to bring office supply processes and procedures back in line.
  • Identifying areas for improvement
  • Monitor and control the distribution of office supplies by
  • Identifying, setting and communicating distribution procedures
  • Receiving and recording office supply requests
  • Distributing office supplies within agreed timeframes.
  • Identifying and highlighting areas of non-conformance
  • Taking remedial action to rectify office supply distribution processes and procedures

 

Creating evidence and maintaining confidentiality

 

  • Explain the purpose of record-keeping;
  • identify types of information and records;
  • describe various methods of record keeping;
  • explain procedures for maintaining confidentiality;
  • identify the legal requirements for record keeping;
  • follow organisational procedures; and
  • understand the concept of whistle-blowing.

 

Record management systems

 

  • Provide reasons why companies record and keep information;
  • identify the structure, components, equipment and supplies required for electronic and paper filing systems;
  • use procedures appropriate to the workplace for opening, closing and retaining files;
  • select and use appropriate storage and retrieval methods for electronic and paper records;
  • handle records in a manner which complies with statutes and regulations governing the privacy of information and the retention of records;
  • develop a schedule for retention and disposal of records;
  • provide reasons for internal control; and
  • identify problems with inadequate internal controls and make suggestions for improvement.

 

Handling mail

 

  • Receive mail according to established procedures;
  • sort mail according to established procedures;
  • stamp mail correctly according to established requirements;
  • provide reasons for stamping incoming mail;
  • attach enclosures securely and report missing items in accordance to set procedures;
  • describe the importance of maintaining confidentiality and security of documentation in terms of receiving and sorting mail;
  • observe confidentiality in terms of a mailroom code of conduct;
  • distribute mail internally to relevant persons within an agreed time;
  • explain possible reasons for unavoidable or necessary delays in distribution, and describe the consequences of such delays;
  • address mail legibly and correctly for internal and external distribution;
  • describe procedures  for  dispatching  mail  externally  in  accordance  with  established procedures and Post Office requirements;
  • dispatch mail externally via the Post Office or a courier service within agreed deadlines; and
  • explain the legal implications of neglecting to comply with mailroom procedures in terms of own work performance and possible cost to company.

 

Travel and events management

 

  • Identify the principal features of making effective travel arrangements;
  • prepare an itinerary for a trip;
  • give advice on booking travel and hotel accommodation;
  • suggest a selection of useful travel reference sources which a secretary might consult;

 

  • list the sort of arrangements entailed in organising formal and informal meetings;
  • appreciate the factors which need to be taken into account in arranging a business lunch or event;
  • suggest the factors which would contribute to a successful social event;
  • identify the principal features in organising a business event;
  • explain the kind of checks which would be built into arrangements to ensure effectiveness; and
  • identify and source available external support.

 

 

Creating business documents

 

  • Produce an advanced business letter;
  • produce an advanced official letter/formal report;
  • produce display documents and documents used at meetings, suitable for publishing on A4 and A5 paper;
  • prepare a notice, agenda and minutes of a meeting;
  • prepare a table on A4 portrait and A4 landscape paper;
  • preparing a legal document and a company document;
  • producing a financial statement; and
  • preparing a curriculum vitae and a memorandum.

 

Banking, cash control and the business information manual

 

  • Discuss the necessity of banking and banking accounts with examples of consequences of not having them;
  • explain the skills necessary to interpret bank statements and operate banking accounts with examples;
  • relate financial concepts and principles to the business environment; and
  • prepare a business information manual (business plan).

 

An introduction to business law

 

  • Describe the South African legal system;
  • identify the different courts of law;
  • discuss the requirements that have to be met in order for a contract to be valid; and
  • distinguish between the different types of contracts a person can enter into.

 

 

Acts and laws for business

 

  • Discuss aspects of intellectual property law;
  • discuss aspects of competition law;
  • discuss legislation applicable to business and banks; and
  • discuss legislation applicable to the accounting and tax environments.

 

Business Management 2

Planning

 

  • List the reasons for planning in an organisation;
  • identify different planning timeframes;
  • name the barriers to planning formulation;
  • outline the planning process;
  • analyse the different tools available for planning purposes;
  • set well-formulated goals for an organisation; and
  • distinguish between the different types of plans an organisation could implement.

 

Decision making

 

  • Discuss the importance of decision-making in an organisation;
  • explain the difference between problem-defining and problem-solving;
  • outline the steps in the decision-making process;
  • identify the different types of managerial decisions;
  • distinguish between the different conditions under which decisions can be taken;
  • describe how decisions are taken in groups;
  • compare the formal decision techniques; and
  • contrast the decision-making tools at the disposal of a manager.

 

Organising

 

  • Compare the different organisational structures;
  • list the principles of organisation;
  • outline the delegation process;
  • distinguish between job design, job enrichment and job characteristics; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of the principle of ‘authority’ in an organisation.

 

 

Leadership and motivation

 

  • Define the term ‘leadership’;
  • contrast the different leadership theories;
  • identify contemporary leadership perspectives;
  • explain the link between leadership and organisation-political behaviour;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the needs of the individual in an organisation;
  • describe how to handle groups and teams;
  • analyse the motivation process;
  • define the term ‘motivation’;
  • compare the different motivation theories;
  • recognise the relationship between money and motivation; and
  • discuss where motivation originates from.

 

Control

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the nature and importance of control in an organisation;
  • outline the control process;
  • describe which areas in a business controls should focus;
  • distinguish between the different levels of control; and
  • list the characteristics of an effective control system.

 

 

Introduction to ecomonics

 

  • Define economics;
  • describe the economic environment in which an organisation functions;
  • classify and explain economics as a science;
  • explain the basic economic problem;
  • differentiate between microeconomics and macroeconomics;
  • explain the micro and macroeconomic and operational environments applicable to an organisation;
  • distinguish between needs, wants and demand;
  • discuss and classify the hierarchy of human needs;
  • define and calculate opportunity cost;
  • illustrate and interpret a production possibility curve;
  • demonstrate the relationship between production and cost;
  • identify and discuss the problems flowing from the basic economic problem;
  • indicate why you should study economics; and
  • describe the main theories and approaches used to examine the economy.

 

Economic systems and how the economy works

 

  • Discuss how the different economic systems attempt to solve the basic economic problem and questions arising from it;
  • discuss the various economic systems meaningfully;
  • know the advantages and disadvantages of each system;
  • know the similarities and differences between the systems;
  • identify South Africa’s current economic system;
  • give an opinion on the ‘ideal’ economic system;
  • distinguish between households and businesses and show how their activities interrelate;
  • describe the  role  of  government  and  show  how  it  interacts  with  households  and businesses;
  • describe the  role  of  the  foreign  sector  and  show  how  it  interacts  with  the  domestic economy; and
  • describe where and how the financial sector fits into the entire economic cycle.

 

 

The monetary sector, public sector and foreign sector

 

  • Explain the origin and functions of money;
  • discuss the requirements of money;

 

  • discuss the instruments of monetary policy;
  • discuss the transmission mechanism;
  • fully explain equilibrium in the money market;
  • discuss various financial intermediaries;
  • discuss the reasons for and the nature of government intervention;
  • describe regulation in the media economy;
  • explain the role of tax as a fiscal policy instrument;
  • discuss loans and expenditure as fiscal instruments;
  • explain why there has to be co-ordination between fiscal policy and monetary policy;
  • explain what international trade is and what it includes;
  • place the present world economy in historical perspective;
  • give reasons why international trade takes place;
  • explain the difference between comparative and absolute advantage; and
  • explain the advantages of international trade.

 

The economic cycle, growth, development and forecasts

 

  • Graphically depict the consumption function and interpret the income expenditure diagram;
  • explain the relationship between expenditure and savings;
  • show the relationship between the interest rate and the level of investment;
  • discuss finance, valuation and investment in the economy;
  • explain the working of the multiplier effect;
  • evaluate the effect of government expenditure and taxes on the economy;
  • identify the effect of the foreign sector on the economy;
  • calculate the multiplier; and
  • understand the effect of the exchange rate and interest rates on the economy.

 

 

 

 

Business Management 3

Introduction to strategic management

 

  • Define and evaluate strategic management;
  • describe and explain the advantages of systematic corporate strategic planning;
  • appraise the strategic management process;
  • describe and explain the key elements /steps in the corporate strategic planning process;
  • examine the different levels of strategy and the characteristics of strategic as compared to tactical decisions and management;
  • analyse and assess the corporate planning process in different organisational contexts;
  • describe the role of the key individuals involved in the strategic management process;
  • provide a critical overview of the building blocks of the strategic management process;
  • describe the various levels of strategic management;
  • appraise the relationship between strategy and competence; and
  • analyse the importance of stakeholders on the strategies employed by companies.

 

The significance and progression of international business

 

  • Examine the changing nature of the international business  environment  by  critically analysing the dynamic nature of this environment as an important source of  major business opportunities;
  • identify the reasons for ‘going global’;
  • discuss various similarities between domestic and international business;
  • identify and discuss various differences between international and domestic business;
  • examine ‘degree of involvement’ by analysing two main  approaches  –  classification structure of Howard Perlmutter (four types of attitudes that influence internationalisation) and the stages approach; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of the new age transnational approach.

 

Understanding international trade

 

  • Examine the various classification of share in world trade;
  • analyse and discuss the Big Four global economies;
  • discuss the methods available to claasify the world in international trade;
  • examine the reasons for global trade and critique the measurement thereof;
  • compare and contrast the various types of barriers to international trade, including tariffs, nontariffs, dumping and anti-dumping, and other hurdles to world trade;
  • compare and contrast the role and function of various global institutions such as the WTO, the IMF and the World Bank;
  • comment on the purpose of trade blocs and compare and contrast various trade blocs currently in place, including the European Union (EU), BRICS countries, SADC countries and the South African Customs Union (SACU); and
  • critically analyse the benefits and obstacles posed by global trading blocs.

 

Analysing the macro-environmental matrix

 

  • Examine the importance of environmental scanning;
  • contrast the methods used in environmental scanning;
  • analyse the various sources of information;
  • compare and contrast the major macro-environmental dynamics; and
  • analyse and examine the concept of a competitive analysis.

 

Global business strategy

 

  • Analyse and discuss the planning framework, approaches to planning, benefits of planning, and the difficulties of planning in international markets;
  • explain and examine the Ansoff growth matrix;
  • discuss the key strategic decision areas;
  • compare and discuss all elements of international strategy and organisational dynamics;
  • elaborate on the components of international strategy and competition;
  • explain the significance of international strategy and level of economic development; and
  • examine and analyse the capital requirements associated with global business strategy.

 

International organisational culture and structures

 

  • Analyse Hofstede’s (1997) definition of culture;
  • discuss and comment on the five cultural dimensions as presented by Hofstede;
  • summarise the characteristics of culture;
  • explain the differences and similarities between national culture and organisational culture;
  • discuss the concept of cultural diversity and indicate reasons for intercultural failures;
  • examine international organisational structure in the form of  international  teams  and elaborate further on how culture impacts on this type of international organisational structure;
  • draw a  comparison  between  the  various  leadership  styles  across  the  world  whilst considering the impact of domestic culture;
  • discuss the concept of international communication and its associated elements;
  • develop a strategic cultural diversity plan;
  • become culturally intelligent and develop intercultural skills;
  • analyse the importance of expatriates and diversity management; and
  • comment on the convergence of cultures theory.

 

 

International strategy: joint ventures

 

  • Discuss the concept of cooperation as a strategy for international business;
  • examine the opportunities presented by the strategy of international joint ventures;
  • contrast and compare the various forms of joint ventures;
  • critically discuss the complexity associated with joint ventures;
  • analyse the various factors that are deemed critical in order for a joint venture to succeed;
  • discuss the impact of culture on the formation of a joint venture;
  • compare and contrast leadership vs. motivation in respect of joint ventures;
  • define and discuss policy development and joint ventures;
  • analyse how planning is affected when forming a joint venture; and
  • discuss the role of trust and how to develop trust in joint ventures.

 

 

Entry strategies and decisions

 

  • Discuss the concept of choice of entry;
  • examine and  differentiate  between  the  different  categories  of  exporting,  overseas manufacturing and ownership;
  • critically discuss the nature of franchising;
  • contrast and compare the various factors that impact on the selection of an entry route;
  • critically discuss the independent approach to entry decision-making; and
  • critically discuss the idiosyncratic approach to entry decision-making.

 

Financial Management and Control

An introduction to information systems

 

  • The ability to recognise the value of information and information systems in organisations;
  • discuss the  reasons  why  organisations  are  increasingly  becoming  dependent  on information systems;
  • outline the characteristics of an efficient information system;
  • identify different types of information systems in an organisation and explain the integration of these systems;
  • identify the information system requirements for the different levels within an organisation; and
  • discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various information systems.

 

 

Management information systems

 

  • Define and state the purpose of management information;
  • describe the features of useful management information;
  • describe the role of information in executing the four functions of management; and
  • highlight emerging trends in information systems;
  • describe information technology as an enabler of change;
  • explain the need for effective internal control over transactions;
  • describe the purpose and nature of a computerised information system;
  • explain how computerised accounting systems can assist management accountants with planning and decision-making; and
  • identify the key features, functions and benefits of computerised information systems.

 

 

An introduction to auditing

 

  • Explain the nature of an audit;
  • explain the purpose of an audit, including the advantages and disadvantages of an audit;
  • explain the nature of accounting records, including proper records;
  • explain the concepts of true and fair presentation, and reasonable assurance;
  • explain the regulations governing the appointment, removal and resignation of auditors;
  • describe the duties of auditors;
  • describe the rights of auditors;
  • explain the liability of auditors under contract and negligence to clients;
  • explain the liability of auditors to third parties;
  • describe the objectives of an internal control system;
  • explain the importance of internal control to auditors;
  • discuss the fundamental principles an auditor should adhere to including  integrity, objectivity, professional confidence and due care, confidentiality and professional behaviour;
  • describe the detailed requirements – and application of professional ethics – in the context of integrity, objectivity and independence;
  • explain the structure of the auditing profession; and

 

  • explain the scope of ISAs.

 

The role and function of the financial manager

 

  • Explain the primary roles of the financial manager, namely performing financial analysis and planning, making investment decisions and making financing decisions;
  • demonstrate how a financial manager balances the timing of returns and cash distributions to equity participants in lieu of prevalent and pending risks;
  • critically evaluate the ethical considerations that underlie a financial manager’s conduct; and
  • describe the agency problem and the associated risk posed by a financial manager to the corporate entity that it purports to serve.

 

Material and inventory control

 

  • Identify appropriate cost centres and elements of costs;
  • explain what is meant by ‘stockpiling’;
  • explain how inventory costs can be controlled in the most efficient way;
  • illustrate how  the  most  economical  ordering  quantity  for  items  of  inventory  can  be ascertained;
  • determine the reorder point and safety stock values for items of inventory;
  • describe the just-in-time (JIT) system of inventory control.
  • describe the real costs of inventory (e.g. purchasing costs, ordering costs, stock-out costs and quality costs);
  • explain the concept of ‘shrinkage’ and demonstrate how shrinkage can be minimised;
  • demonstrate how inventory can be valued according to the FIFO or weighted average method of valuation; and
  • calculate gross margins when using different valuation methods for closing inventory.

 

 

Labour cost control

 

  • Describe recruitment  practices  and  payroll  administration  as  elements  of  personnel management;
  • explain the importance of proper administration of payroll records; and
  • discuss the importance of effective performance management in an organisation.

 

 

Allocating and controlling overheads

 

  • Record and analyse information with respect to allocation, apportionment and absorption of overhead costs using direct and step methods;
  • record and analyse information with respect to allocation, apportionment and absorption of overhead costs using the linear algebraic method; and
  • establish a predetermined overhead rate and calculate under/over-applied manufacturing overhead.

 

Job costing

 

  • Describe the characteristics of job costing;
  • calculate unit costs using job costing;
  • identify the differences between job costing and process costing;
  • describe the steps involved in job costing;
  • identify overhead application rates in a job costing environment;
  • calculate the cost of a job;
  • calculate and analyse the profit or loss of a job;
  • identify and calculate over- or under-absorbed overheads;
  • calculate the cost of a job taking into account work-in-process and finished goods;
  • identify and complete a job order cost sheet;
  • account for normal and abnormal wastage;
  • prepare relevant ledger accounts for a job costing system;
  • prepare manufacturing accounts; and
  • distinguish between work-in-process and finished goods in a job costing environment.

 

 

Contract costing

 

  • Define contract costing;
  • describe common  terms  used  in  contract  accounting,  including  contract  price,  total estimated;
  • Identify and calculate costs and profit, certified and uncertified work, as well as retention money;
  • differentiate between fixed price and cost plus products;
  • examine the reasons for work being certified;
  • describe how the contract accounting system works;
  • prepare a contract account (WIP) in the general ledger;
  • prepare the general ledger accounts under the completed contract method;
  • prepare the general ledger accounts under the percentage-of-completion method;
  • prepare contract accounts when holding back a reserve;
  • outline the accounting processes to account for the disposal of unsuitable materials, plant, etc.; and
  • apply the concept of prudence in the recording process when it appears that a loss is going to be made during the course of a contract.

 

Entrepreneurship Programme

 

Refer to the curriculum statements under the Accounting Programme for the following subjects:

  • Business Literacy
  • Bookkeeping to trial balance
  • Financial statements
  • Financial reporting and regulatory frameworks

 

 

 

 

Refer to the curriculum statements under the Office Administration Programme for the following subjects:

  • Marketing management and public relations
  • Human resources management and labour relations

 

Refer  to  the  curriculum  statements  under  the  Business  Management  Programme  for  the following subjects:

  • Office and Legal Practice
  • Financial Management and Control

 

Entrepreneurship 1

Becoming an entrepreneur

 

  • Explain what is meant by entrepreneurship and the world of the entrepreneur;
  • outline the main rewards of entrpreneurship;
  • conduct a market feasibility study;
  • determine the extent of your market share;
  • calculate revenue, costs, profit and break-even point;
  • discuss the process of buying an existing business;
  • illustrate the life cycle of a business;
  • understand the need for innovation and creativity in a business;
  • explain risk management for sustainability; and
  • outline the business principles that should be addressed in a code of ethics.

 

 

Financing and planning your business

 

  • Identify and evaluate the different sources of capital for a new business;
  • explain what financiers look for;
  • list acceptable forms of collateral;
  • prepare a business plan that will be acceptable to a financier; and
  • calculate the cost of your debt.

 

Formalising your business

 

  • Outline the main differences between the different types of business form;
  • list and explain the legal start-up requirements for a business venture;
  • describe the relationship between the business and the bank;
  • describe the importance of a strong corporate identity, and how to form such an identity; and
  • set up your office in an orderly, appropriate and efficient manner.

 

Getting your logistics on track

 

  • Explain the role of wholesalers in the economy;
  • outline the main duties of the purchasing function in a small business;
  • explain and calculate the various costs associated with inventory;
  • prepare the paperwork for your procurement department; and
  • demonstrate an understanding of how to set up a cost-effective distribution channel for your product or service.

 

Costing and financial techniques

 

  • Calculate the total production, administration, selling and distribution costs of a product;
  • distinguish between fixed, semi-fixed, semi-variable and variable costs; and
  • carry out a simple break-even analysis.

 

Budgeting, cash control and forecasting

 

  • Calculate the level of working capital in a business;
  • identify and explain the dangers of overtrading;
  • understand the effects on cash flow of external and internal events and action;
  • prepare a debtors collection schedule as well as creditors settlement schedule; and
  • describe the benefits of budgeting.

 

Working with SARS

 

  • Explain what VAT is and how the system works;
  • explain the VAT registration requirements and VAT periods;
  • compare the two bases according to which vendors may be registered for VAT;
  • perform basic VAT calculations;
  • calculate gross earnings for an employee;
  • complete a monthly EMP201 return; and
  • complete the annual EMP501 reconciliation for SARS.

 

Introduction to Computing

 

  • Discuss the history of computers briefly;
  • learn what a PC is and how it basically works;
  • identify the main components of PC Hardware;
  • understand why upgrading a PC is important;
  • identify various PC Software applications;
  • differentiate between hardware and software;
  • understand the interaction between Hardware and Software using the IPOS cycle;
  • understand what networks are used for;
  • identify the basic components of networks; and
  • explain the advantages and disadvantages of using computers.

 

The Windows Operating System

 

  • Understand where the windows concept comes from;
  • learn how to use basic tools in Windows;
  • learn how to Log On to your PC;
  • identify the desktop and the taskbar;
  • identify objects in Windows;
  • use the recycle bin;
  • identify tooltips;
  • identify common Window components;
  • learn how to control multiple opened Windows;
  • learn how to start a programme;
  • use the help, support and search tools;
  • learn how to adjust PC hardware and PC software properties;
  • learn how to change basic mouse properties;
  • view the display properties;
  • understand user accounts;
  • add and remove programmes;
  • learn what drivers are;
  • use Windows Explorer to browse and create folders;
  • open and navigate through the Windows Explorer structure;
  • learn how to work with files and folders in Windows Explorer;
  • create and save a document in Windows; and
  • know how to launch a programme.

 

 

Working with Internet and email

 

  • Learn what e-mail is;
  • distinguish the difference between Internet e-mail and network e-mail;
  • identify the various Outlook components;
  • compose messages in Outlook;
  • learn how to format messages;
  • learn how to open a message;
  • learn how to add an attachment to e-mail;
  • understand why and how to create e-mail folders;
  • learn how to move messages to a folder;
  • understand how contacts work in Outlook;
  • learn how to add and delete contacts in the address book;
  • use the help function in Outlook;
  • working with electronic calendars;
  • schedule appointments and meetings in an electronic diary;
  • create and manage contact in an electronic diary;
  • understand Internet Basics;
  • distinguish between the Intranet and the extranet;
  • understand what viruses are;
  • identify a web browser;
  • understand what the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is;

 

  • identify the Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 Interface;
  • use web-based tools;
  • download programs and files from the web;
  • understand the workings of a search engine; and
  • search the web and getting usable information.

 

The entrepreneurial checklist

 

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the steps necessary to start your own business.

 

 

 

 

Entrepreneurship 2

Entrepreneurship and SMME’s − the economic significance of small business

 

  • Discuss the role of entrepreneurs in the economy;
  • define small, micro and medium-sized enterprises (SMMEs) in the context of the South African economy;
  • appreciate the significance of the small firm sector in the South African economy;
  • describe the economic rationale for the promotion of SMMEs in the economy;
  • understand the rewards and costs associated with SMME entrepreneurship;
  • outline the size, profile and performance of South Africa’s SMME economy;
  • distinguish between different types of entrepreneurs and firms;
  • differentiate an entrepreneurial venture from a small business; and
  • assess yourself as a potential entrepreneur.

 

The new business venture and getting started

 

  • Understand the process of new venture creation;
  • appreciate the role of motivation in influencing small business formation;
  • explore the antecedent influences on entrepreneurship;
  • understand a business opportunity and a window of opportunity;
  • explain the sources of ideas for venture formation;
  • establish a timeline for starting up your business venture;
  • examine the due diligence in starting up a new business venture;
  • compare factors concerning business location; and
  • consider ethical factors of a start-up venture.

 

Entrepreneurial management functions

 

  • Describe the levels of management in an entrepreneurial business;
  • define entrepreneurial business management and describe the basic management functions in an entrepreneurial business environment;
  • understand the differences between the various entrepreneurial business management functions;
  • review alternative viewpoints of business management and its relationship to the entrepreneurial small business environment; and

 

  • distinguish between leadership and management.

 

Leading a small business

 

  • Describe the full meaning of leadership and its role in entrepreneurship;
  • recognise and facilitate the six fundamental transformations in today’s entrepreneurial organisations and leaders;
  • identify the primary reasons for leadership derailment and the new paradigm skills that can help to avoid it;
  • appreciate the crucial importance of providing direction, alignment, relationships, personal qualities and outcomes;
  • identify personal traits and characteristics that are associated with leadership;
  • recognise autocratic versus democratic leadership behaviour and the impact of each;
  • know the distinction between people-orientated and task-orientated leadership behaviour and when each should be used;
  • understand how the theory of individualised leadership has broadened the understanding of relationships between leaders and followers; and
  • recognise how to build partnerships for greater entrepreneurial and organisational effectiveness.

 

Marketing and advertising

 

  • Outline the secrets to successful advertising and marketing;
  • explore and evaluate the different forms of media and mass communications;
  • create your own advertisements; and
  • initiate a marketing campaign.

 

Your staff and labour legislation

 

  • Outline and explain the Basic Conditions of Employment Act;
  • calculate and explain normal time and over-time as well as the opportunity cost of each;
  • explain the various types of leave that an employee is entitled to during the course of his or her employment;
  • outline the implications of leave payments and leave encashment;
  • outline the most important aspects of Black Economic Empowerment (BEE); and
  • outline the most important requirements for sound employment contracts.

 

 

An introduction to economics

 

  • Define economics;
  • describe the economic environment in which an organisation functions;
  • classify and explain economics as a science;
  • explain the basic economic problem;
  • differentiate between microeconomics and macroeconomics;
  • explain the micro and macroeconomic and operational environments applicable to an organisation;
  • distinguish between needs, wants and demand;

 

  • discuss and classify the hierarchy of human needs;
  • define and calculate opportunity cost;
  • illustrate and interpret a production possibility curve;
  • demonstrate the relationship between production and cost;
  • identify and discuss the problems flowing from the basic economic problem; and
  • indicate why you should study economics.

 

Economic systems and how the economy works

 

  • Discuss how the different economic systems attempt to solve the basic economic problem and questions arising from it;
  • discuss the various economic systems meaningfully;
  • know the advantages and disadvantages of each system;
  • know the similarities and differences between the systems;
  • identify South Africa’s current economic system;
  • give an opinion on the ‘ideal’ economic system;
  • distinguish between households and businesses and show how their activities interrelate;
  • describe the role of government and show how it interacts with households and businesses;
  • describe the role of the foreign sector and show how it interacts with the domestic economy; and
  • describe where and how the financial sector fits into the entire economic cycle.

 

The monetary sector, public sector and foreign sector

 

  • Explain the origin and functions of money;
  • discuss the requirements of money;
  • discuss the instruments of monetary policy;
  • discuss the transmission mechanism;
  • fully explain equilibrium in the money market;
  • discuss various financial intermediaries;
  • discuss the reasons for and the nature of government intervention;
  • describe regulation in the economy;
  • explain the role of tax as a fiscal policy instrument;
  • discuss loans and expenditure as fiscal instruments;
  • explain why there has to be co-ordination between fiscal policy and monetary policy;
  • explain what international trade is and what it includes;
  • place the present world economy in historical perspective;
  • give reasons why international trade takes place;
  • explain the difference between comparative and absolute advantage; and
  • explain the advantages of international trade.

 

The economic cycle, growth, development and forecasts

 

  • Graphically depict the consumption function and interpret the income expenditure diagram;
  • explain the relationship between expenditure and savings;
  • show the relationship between the interest rate and the level of investment;
  • discuss finance, valuation and investment in the economy;

 

  • explain the working of the multiplier effect;
  • evaluate the effect of government expenditure and taxes on the economy;
  • identify the effect of the foreign sector on the economy;
  • calculate the multiplier;
  • understand the effect of the exchange rate and interest rates on the economy;
  • explain labour supply and demand;
  • calculate equilibrium in the labour market;
  • discuss the role of the unions in the labour market;
  • present the labour market on graphs;
  • define and interpret the effect of unemployment and the informal sector on the South African labour market; and
  • describe the main intricacies of labour in the economy.

 

The significance and progression of international business

 

  • Examine the changing nature of the international business environment by critically analyzing the dynamic nature of this environment as an important source of major business opportunities;
  • identify the reasons for ‘going global’;
  • discuss various similarities between domestic and international business;
  • identify and discuss various differences between international and domestic business;
  • examine ‘degree of involvement’ by analyzing two main approaches – classification structure of Howard Perlmutter (four types of attitudes that influence internationalisation) and the stages approach; and
  • briefly comment and compare the new age transnational approach.

 

 

Entrepreneurship 3

 

The entrepreneurial revolution

 

  • Explain the concept of entrepreneurship;
  • describe the skills and qualities of entrepreneurs;
  • view the evidence of the transformation of the world economy, with particular reference to the role played by entrepreneurs in this transformation; and
  • justify why building an entrepreneurial society should be a high priority in the 21st century.

 

The entrepreneurial process

 

  • Outline the entrepreneurial process;
  • analyse the Timmons model of the entrepreneurial process; and
  • examine the relationship between the application of the entrepreneurial process and entrepreneurial ambitions.

 

Recognising and evaluating opportunities

 

  • Discuss the pressures and demands in the marketplace that drive opportunities for entrepreneurs, with an eye toward sustainability;
  • better understand the creative processes involved in entrepreneurship;
  • develop concepts for evaluating a personal entrepreneurial strategy and apprenticeship;
  • effectively utilise screening methodologies that can help determine whether ideas are potential opportunities;
  • assess the probable fit of the entrepreneur with their team and resources, and the balance of risk and reward;
  • determine whether your best idea at this time has sufficient potential to pursue the development of a thorough business plan; and
  • assess whether you believe you can sufficiently alter the idea and your strategy to create a good fit and an attractive risk-reward balance for you and your investors.

 

Managing rapid growth

 

  • Identify the characteristics of high-growth business ventures;
  • explain the dimensions of business growth;
  • discuss the factors influencing entrepreneurial growth;
  • analyse the problems associated with rapid growth; and
  • examine the organisation and leadership requirements associated with rapid growth.

 

 

Introduction to strategic management

 

  • Define and evaluate strategic management;
  • describe and explain the advantages of systematic corporate strategic planning;
  • appraise the strategic management process;
  • describe and explain the key elements /steps in the corporate strategic planning process;
  • examine the different levels of strategy and the characteristics of strategic as compared to tactical decisions and management;
  • analyse and assess the corporate planning process in different organisational contexts;
  • describe the role of the key individuals involved in the strategic management process;
  • provide a critical overview of the building blocks of the strategic management process;
  • describe the various levels of strategic management;
  • appraise the relationship between strategy and competence; and
  • analyse the importance of stakeholders on the strategies employed by companies.

 

 

Global business strategy

 

  • Analyse and discuss the planning framework, approaches to planning, benefits of planning, and the difficulties of planning in international markets;
  • explain and examine the Ansoff growth matrix;
  • discuss the key strategic decision areas;
  • compare and discuss all elements of international strategy and organisational dynamics;
  • elaborate on the components of international strategy and competition;

 

  • explain the significance of international strategy and level of economic development; and
  • examine and analyse the capital requirements associated with global business strategy.

 

Global human resource management: mentorship and training

 

  • Discuss the concept of mentorship;
  • examine the necessity of cross-cultural training in global business;
  • critically discuss the philosophy and objectives of training;
  • analyse and discuss the identification of target training groups and the importance of training expatriates and their families;
  • critically discuss the importance of identifying specific training needs;
  • compare and contrast the various types of training;
  • examine the purpose and importance of continual training in global business; and
  • critique the need for effective measurement of training.

 

Managing and leading change

 

  • Recognise social and economic pressures for change in today’s organisations;
  • implement the eight-stage model of planned major change and use everyday strategies for gradual change;
  • expand their own and others’ creativity and facilitate organisational innovation;
  • use techniques of communication, training and participation to overcome resistance to change;
  • effectively and humanely address the negative impact of change; and
  • describe and explain the range, nature and inputs to setting corporate objectives and goals.

 

 

Personal ethics and the entrepreneur

 

  • Understand the nature of business ethics;
  • evaluate the importance of ethical awareness and values for entrepreneurs;
  • identify ethical dilemmas that arise in the course of operating a business;
  • analyse approaches to and decisions involving ethical issues; and
  • discuss the impact of an entrepreneur’s personal ethics on the business venture.